The Jacobin Mob, attacks the Prince

The Prince of Wales and his wife were attacked the other day. Although it was unscheduled, and unscripted, none the less they ran headlong into the mob.

...The Duchess of Cornwall was physically attacked through an open car window as thugs rampaged in London, the Standard can reveal today.

A rioter managed to push a stick into the royal limousine and jab her in the ribs. Camilla's terrifying ordeal came as a baying mob surrounded her and husband Prince Charles when they rode through central London in the vintage Rolls-Royce last night.

A police source said one of the car's rear windows was opened in error as tuition fee protesters moved in.

The attack is the biggest royal security breach in decades and raises new questions about protection of the couple. Charlie Gilmour, the son of Pink Floyd guitarist David, was with protesters in Regent Street when the car was hit...

The reason for the protest? Raising the tuition to 9000 Pounds (14,000 dollars). My daughters college tuition, not government funded was about 16,000 dollars for each of the last three years of her education. I did not riot, I guess that is the difference of someone who feels entitled to something by the government and someone who does not.

This type of thing has just begun. Can we now expect heads on a pike carried throught the streets of London?



Snow in Paris, ah Paris...

The Eiffel Tower is outlined by a snow covered blanket. More photos are here...

Catherine delors has posted this today.

It's beginning to look like Christmas is coming.

Joyeux Noël !


Immaculate Conception

Immaculate Mary

Immaculate Mary, thy praises we sing;
Who reignest in splendor with Jesus our King.
Ave, ave, ave, Maria! Ave, ave, Maria!

In heaven, the blessed thy glory proclaim;
On earth we, thy children, invoke thy fair name.
Ave, ave, ave, Maria! Ave, ave, Maria!

We pray for God's glory; may His kingdom come;
We pray for His vicar, our father, and Rome.
Ave, ave, ave, Maria! Ave, ave, Maria!

We pray for our Mother, the Church upon earth,
And bless, dearest Lady, the land of our birth.
Ave, ave, ave, Maria! Ave, ave, Maria!



Refined attitudes never go out of style.

Swell and Dandy has posted this article. Madonna could learn from this...

Vogue Etiquette

In 1924, Vogue magazine published a book of etiquette for the "great rising mass" to be educated in proper behaviour. Thanks to BuzzFeed, we came across some interesting clippings from that book, now available to you here. more...

Thank You, Percy.

You should be knighted, Sir Percy has such a ring to it.



Was Medieval England more Merrie than thought?

LONDON (Reuters) – Maybe being a serf or a villein in the Middle Ages was not such a grim existence as it seems.

Medieval England was not only far more prosperous than previously believed, it also actually boasted an average income that would be more than double the average per capita income of the world's poorest nations today, according to new research.

Living standards in medieval England were far above the "bare bones subsistence" experience of people in many of today's poor countries, a study says.

"The majority of the British population in medieval times could afford to consume what we call a 'respectability basket' of consumer goods that allowed for occasional luxuries," said University of Warwick economist Professor Stephen Broadberry, who led the research.

"By the late Middle Ages, the English people were in a position to afford a varied diet including meat, dairy produce and ale, as well as the less highly processed grain products that comprised the bulk of the bare bones subsistence diet," he added.

He said a figure of $400 annually (as expressed in 1990 international dollars) is commonly is used as a measure of bare bones subsistence and was previously believed to be the average income in England in the Middle Ages.

But the researchers found that English per capita incomes in the late Middle Ages were actually of the order of $1,000.

Even on the eve of the Black Death plague, which first struck in 1348/49, the researchers found per capita incomes in England of more than $800.

That compares with today's estimates of for example Zaire at $249, Burundi $479 and Niger $514.

The research also showed that the path to the Industrial Revolution began far earlier than usually thought.

"A widely held view of economic history suggests that the Industrial Revolution of 1800 suddenly took off, in the wake of centuries without sustained economic growth or appreciable improvements in living standards in England from the days of the hunter-gatherer," said Broadberry in a statement.

"By contrast, we find that the Industrial Revolution did not come out of the blue. Rather, it was the culmination of a long period of economic development stretching back as far as the late medieval period." The research is published in "British Economic Growth, 1270-1870" which is available on Warwick University's website.

Original article is here...
by Stephen Addison



Austerlitz, or the Battle of The Three Emperors

..."Soldiers, I am pleased with you! You have, on this day of Austerlitz, justified all that I had expected from your courage, and you have honoured your eagles with immortal glory. In less than 4 hours, an army of 100,000 men, commanded by the Emperors of Russia and Austria, has been cut down or scattered. Such enemy as escaped your bayonets have drowned in the lakes.

40 colours, the standards of the Russian Imperial Guard, 120 pieces of artillery, 20 generals and over 30,000 prisoners are the result of this day - to be for ever celebrated. That such vaunted infantry, so superior in numbers, could not resist your charge, proves henceforth you have no longer any rivals to fear. Thus in 2 months, this Third Coalition has been overthrown and dissolved. Peace cannot now be far away...

Soldiers, when everything necessary for the happiness and prosperity of the motherland has been accomplished, I will lead you back to France: there you will be the object of my tenderest solicitude. My people will greet you with joy, and it will suffice for you to say, 'I was at the battle of Austerlitz', for them to reply: 'there is one of the brave...'"

Austerlitz or the Battle of The Three Emperors, Napoleon, Tsar Alexander I and Francis II (although command was exercised by Alexander) fought on 2 December 1805, was the penultimate of Napoleon's masterpieces. Though outnumbered, Napoleon managed to rout the combined Austrian and Russian army destroying the Third Coalition.

Through deception, Napoleon allowed the Allies to think that his army was weak and could easily be swept aside. The Austro-Russians fell for his trick and were lured to turn the French right. The allied attack began at dawn although the battlefield was shrouded in mist.

Right:: French Infantry

When Napoleon judged that the Allies were fully committed to an attack on his right he gave Marshall Soult the order for the Austro-Russian center located on the Pratzen to be carried. The legendary "Sun of Austerlitz" at 9 AM burned off the mist. To the Austro-Russians it appeared that the entire french Army was attacking them. By 11 AM the French had carried the Pratzen Heights.

At the same time a cavalry battle was taking place on the French left which commanded by General Lannes. When Lannes judged the moment when the final push should begin he pushed forward his infantry. The Infantry advanced with elan despite terrible losses. By noon the Coalition was collapsing.
Above left: Austrian Grenadiers*

Above:Russian Guard Infantry

On the Pratzen, counterattacks against the French failed. The Russian Imperial Guard Corps under Grand Duke Constantine was thrown into battle in a last ditch effort. The Russian Imperial Guard, 3000 Grenadiers and 15 squadrons of Cavalry assaulted the Pratzen, routing the 4th Line Infantry and 24th Light Infantry Regiments. This caused a break in the french position. This hole in the French line was filled by the French Imperial Guard Chasseurs-a-cheval (light cavalry) and the Grenadiers-a-cheval (heavy cavalry). As the two forces of Guard Cavalry met fierce disorganized close combat insued. Napoleon ordered the Mamelukes of the Guard and 2 more squadrons of Chasseurs-a-cheval into the fray. Suddenly, the Russians retired.

As the French had control of the center, Napoleon ordered his troops to right wheel in order to roll up the extended Austro-Russian left. This was the beginning of the end for the Austro-Russians. Their troops began to retreat and soon they were in full route. The only escape for the Austro-Russians was to the south, and across the frozen Lake Satschan.

French losses amounted to 9000 casualties. The Austro-Russians lost 27000. A ratio of 1 Frenchman to every 3 Austro-Russians.

Dieu Le Roy!

* Hungarian troops would be in the same uniform with light blue trousers with Hungarian knots at the waist over each leg.

Photos were borrowed from my freind Nicolas Mozaks site
Russian Generals of the Napoleon Epoch and the Austerlitz battle reenactment which occured in Gatchina Russia in 2001.
More photos may be found here of the 2005 Austerlitz, the text is in Russian, sorry. You have to trust me when I say it supposed to be Austerlitz, (Gratchina , Russia)
Yes, I know some of the uniforms are not 100% correct for the period of 1805.

Eternal Father

The USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.
My career as a Marine was puntuated from time to time by the singing of this hymn at a service for a fallen comrade or comrades. It is appropriate to play it now for those who are still at sea, or on patrol, in the sky or under the sea. It is very emotional for me still.

Rest in peace.

Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941

Ford Island and East Loch *

The 7 December 1941 Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor was one of the great defining moments in history. A single carefully-planned and well-executed stroke removed the United States Navy's battleship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire's southward expansion. America, unprepared and now considerably weakened, was abruptly brought into the Second World War as a full combatant.

Eighteen months earlier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the United States Fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japanese aggression. The Japanese military, deeply engaged in the seemingly endless war it had started against China in mid-1937, badly needed oil and other raw materials. Commercial access to these was gradually curtailed as the conquests continued. In July 1941 the Western powers effectively halted trade with Japan. From then on, as the desperate Japanese schemed to seize the oil and mineral-rich East Indies and Southeast Asia, a Pacific war was virtually inevitable.

By late November 1941, with peace negotiations clearly approaching an end, informed U.S. officials (and they were well-informed, they believed, through an ability to read Japan's diplomatic codes) fully expected a Japanese attack into the Indies, Malaya and probably the Philippines. Completely unanticipated was the prospect that Japan would attack east, as well.

The Pearl Harbor naval base was recognized by both the Japanese and the United States Navies as a potential target for hostile carrier air power. The U.S. Navy had even explored the issue during some of its interwar "Fleet Problems". However, its distance from Japan and shallow harbor, the certainty that Japan's navy would have many other pressing needs for its aircraft carriers in the event of war, and a belief that intelligence would provide warning persuaded senior U.S. officers that the prospect of an attack on Pearl Harbor could be safely discounted.

During the interwar period, the Japanese had reached similar conclusions. However, their pressing need for secure flanks during the planned offensive into Southeast Asia and the East Indies spurred the dynamic commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to revisit the issue. His staff found that the assault was feasible, given the greater capabilities of newer aircraft types, modifications to aerial torpedoes, a high level of communications security and a reasonable level of good luck. Japan's feelings of desperation helped Yamamoto persuade the Naval high command and Government to undertake the venture should war become inevitable, as appeared increasingly likely during October and November 1941.

All six of Japan's first-line aircraft carriers, Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiryu, Shokaku and Zuikaku, were assigned to the mission. With over 420 embarked planes, these ships constituted by far the most powerful carrier task force ever assembled. Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, an experienced, cautious officer, would command the operation. His Pearl Harbor Striking Force also included fast battleships, cruisers and destroyers, with tankers to fuel the ships during their passage across the Pacific. An Advance Expeditionary Force of large submarines, five of them carrying midget submarines, was sent to scout around Hawaii, dispatch the midgets into Pearl Harbor to attack ships there, and torpedo American warships that might escape to sea.

Under the greatest secrecy, Nagumo took his ships to sea on 26 November 1941, with orders to abort the mission if he was discovered, or should diplomacy work an unanticipated miracle. Before dawn on the 7th of December, undiscovered and with diplomatic prospects firmly at an end, the Pearl Harbor Striking Force was less than three-hundred miles north of Pearl Harbor. A first attack wave of over 180 aircraft, including torpedo planes, high-level bombers, dive bombers and fighters, was launched in the darkness and flew off to the south. When first group had taken off, a second attack wave of similar size, but with more dive bombers and no torpedo planes, was brought up from the carriers' hangar decks and sent off into the emerging morning light. Near Oahu's southern shore, the five midget submarines had already cast loose from their "mother" subs and were trying to make their way into Pearl Harbor's narrow entrance channel.

Japanese planes hit just before 8AM on 7 December. Within a short time five of eight battleships at Pearl Harbor were sunk or sinking, with the rest damaged. Several other ships and most Hawaii-based combat planes were also knocked out and over 2400 Americans were dead. Soon after, Japanese planes eliminated much of the American air force in the Philippines, and a Japanese Army was ashore in Malaya.

These great Japanese successes, achieved without prior diplomatic formalities, shocked and enraged the previously divided American people into a level of purposeful unity hardly seen before or since. For the next five months, until the Battle of the Coral Sea in early May, Japan's far-reaching offensives proceeded untroubled by fruitful opposition. American and Allied morale suffered accordingly. Under normal political circumstances, an accommodation might have been considered.

However, the memory of the "sneak attack" on Pearl Harbor fueled a determination to fight on. Once the Battle of Midway in early June 1942 had eliminated much of Japan's striking power, that same memory stoked a relentless war to reverse her conquests and remove her, and her German and Italian allies, as future threats to World peace.

Jhesu + Marie,

*A nearly vertical view of Ford Island and the East Loch. This view shows 8 battleships and an aircraft carrier possibly the USS Saratoga or the Lexington (judging by the size of the aircraft carrier's superstructure). The battleships are in the possition they would be in during the raid 19 months later. This view also shows the airfield which maintained seaplanes and the aircraft groups (CAG) assigned to the carriers which were landed when the carriers were in port. The other ships including the battle groups escorts; cruisers, destoyers and refuelers.

Naval Historical Command