Two more blogs on the 18th century

TodayI enter an additional blog, full of both history and juicy gossip. Of course the gossip is a bit old, but what the heck.

This is Marie-Antoinette's Gossip Guide. I do not believe that the Reine-Martyr went in for that sort of thing so it must refer to those who would gossip about Marie-Antoinette or her friends. Seriously though it has some interesting stuff in there. Many people know the kernal of history, but as I have said elswhere, it is the little things in history that remind us these were real people with real lives and real feelings. So in that way this is a good, nay excellent blog. It is coupled by the Duchess Georgiana's Gossip Guide whose link is found therein.


A tip of the beret to Lauren.

Vive la Reine!
Richard sieur de Brantigny (dit) Boisvert

Marie-Jeanne Bertin

We have all seen, in recent years, films with historical themes to attempting to be more authentic in the dress of the characters. In the 18th century we have, "The Madness of King George", "The Lady and the Duke" (my particular favorite), "The Affair of the Necklace" (which I didn't much care for), "Marie-Antoinette'not the one with Kursen Dunst, and so on. These films have taken us a bit closer to the era when the clothes look as if they belong, and not like jeans from J C Penny, and dresses from Gunny Sacs (no relation).

Today a dress for a film can be constructed by a sewing machine, but until the advent of the sewing machine each piece was done by hand. Girls learned from early youth to sew, and not just one stitch but different stitches for different places and clothes. A dress for the Queen might have four or five different stitches for strength, stretch, ease of removal, hems, and so on.

Laurens blog has today published many article which I hope to redirect to soon. Todays article concerns Marie-Antoinette's courier of haute mode, Mlle. Bertin...

Many have said that Rose Bertin, born Marie-Jeanne Bertin, was not a dress maker at all, merely a dress 'decorator'. Rose Bertin was the famous milliner to Marie Antoinette's court. I had to throw in this image of Cagliostro, because apparently *waves fan* Rose Bertin contacted a psychic to learn about her future when she was a young inexperienced girl. She found out that she would be very successful, and according to legend, things picked up quickly for her.

She began working for Mlle. Pagelle at the Trait Galant. Another rumor had it that one of the costumers was the mistress of the Comte de Charolais. (I will cover that story later) She had two illegitimate daughters. Long story short, when these lovely ladies were to be married off their wedding gowns were ordered from the Trait Galant. Rose was chosen to deliver them and when she arrived at the home she ran into an older woman, a chambermaid. Rose and the woman started talking about the gowns and when the woman asked to see them Rose showed her. It was a total du Barry moment, because Rose found out she was actually speaking with the princesse de Conti! After begging for forgiveness of her informal behavior the princesse promised her 'protection' and 'good will' for the future. A star was born!

...And then there is make up, to see how to make 18th century makeup go here...

New Blog

I have found a new Blog on the net entitled the Monarchist Initiative I have added a spot on my blogroll.

They write: Monarchist Initiativeis a non-government, non-commercial and non-political organization, established on 26 May 2006, and listed in the Register of Associations, NGOs and Political Organizations of the Ministry of Public Administration and Local Self-Government of Serbia.

The goals of M.I. are:

- to give unity to supporters of constitutional parliamentary monarchy, enabling them to meet and contact other monarchists;

- to promote information about and encourage interest in monarchy, monarchies, and royalty;

- to generally educate the public on these subjects;

- to advance the political theory, history, and philosophy of monarchy;

- to further promote and defend the idea of modern constitutional parliamentary monarchy as a superior governmental form;

- to cause to be written, published, and distributed accounts, records, information, and news of monarchy and royalty;

- and to work for the re-establishment of constitutional parliamentary monarchy – the Kingdom of Serbia.

Bienvenue. I wish you many long blogging years.

Dieu le Roy!
de Brantigny

Georgia "Tiny" Broadwick

The county I live in is the youngest and smallest in the "old North State", that does not mean however we lack for historical notoriety. I present Georgia "Tiny" Broadwick, a pioneer in aviation who was born and lived here.

“Tiny” Broadwick, remembered as the “First Lady of Parachuting,” holds a place in The Guinness Book of World Records for her achievements as a parachutist. Georgia Ann Thompson, married at twelve, was a mother at thirteen, and soon was abandoned by her husband. At fifteen, Georgia, a cotton mill worker in Henderson, attended a carnival in Raleigh. There, she watched as Charles Broadwick jumped from a balloon and descended by parachute. It was a life-changing event for her, and Broadwick secured permission for the teenager to join his “World Famous Aeronauts.” Soon after, she became Broadwick’s adopted daughter. At just over four feet, Georgia was nicknamed “Tiny,” and was billed as “The Doll Girl.” She thrilled audiences by jumping from a swing attached to a balloon. As the novelty wore off, the Broadwicks moved their act to flying machines. In 1913, soaring in a biplane, she descended from 2,000 feet into Griffith Park in Los Angeles, becoming the first woman to jump from an airplane with a parachute.

In 1914, she demonstrated Broadwick’s pack parachute for Army officials. On her third jump, her line became tangled on the plane’s tail assembly. On the next attempt, Tiny cut the line and pulled her chute open by hand, thus making the first premeditated free-fall parachute jump. The Army had a new “life preserver of the air,” just in time for the “Great War.” Tiny Broadwick retired from parachuting in 1922, after more than 1,100 jumps. During World War II, she worked for an aircraft company. She took up residence in California and attended meetings of aviation groups. She was awarded the Pioneer Aviation Award, the John Glenn Medal, and Gold Wings by the Adventurer’s Club of LA. Tiny also became the only female member of the Early Birds of Aviation, an elite group of aviators who flew prior to 1916. Her early parachutes are housed in the North Carolina Museum of History in Raleigh and the Smithsonian Institution. Broadwick Street in Los Angeles is named for her.

Tiny Broadwick died in California on August 25, 1978. She was buried at Sunset Gardens in Henderson. Members of the U.S. Army’s elite parachute team, the Golden Knights, served as her pallbearers. While often overlooked in the annals of flight, Broadwick’s place in aviation history is secure. She helped pave the way for greater pilot safety in an era when military aircraft began taking to the skies.

Essay from NC historical markers, here...
Elizabeth Whitley Roberson, Tiny Broadwick: The First Lady of Parachuting (2001)
Blackburn, Charles Jr. “Tiny Broadwick Leapt into Aviation History,” Our State (January 2004)
Early Birds of Aviation, found here...


Cyrano De Bergerac

One of my most films of all time is the 1950 movie version of Rostand's play Cyrano De Bergerac, starring Jose Ferre. I add to my blog a prtion from the opening scene.

The scope of this performance holds me in awe. Alas, we have no actors like this any more.

Never mess with a Gascon!


Dieu le Roy!
de Brantigny

Direction to a yahoo group

I would like to mention a yahoo group I have belonged to for a long period of time. For those who follow the legitimate heir, Louis Duc d'Anjou the yahoo group louis20 Actualités du prince Louis de Bourbon . This group never fails to have the latest update on the Prince, including photos. You must be signed in to Yahoo to become a member.

Vive le Roy!
de Brantigny

Prince Louis Alphonse de Bourbon

Christine from Laudem Gloriae thankfully has returned to bloging after a short hiatus. Her blog today features the legitimate heir to the throne of France Prince Louis-Alphonse de Bourbon, and his wife Princess Marie Marguerite.

Christine writes...Prince Louis Alphonse de Bourbon (Louis XX) and his wife Princess Marie Marguerite attended Mass at the Hôtel des Invalides in Paris on September 21st, where the Holy Father presided. They had also been invited by President Sarkozy to attend his address to the Pope on his arrival. (The Orléanist pretender to the throne, Henri, Comte de Paris, was (significantly) not invited; Sarkozy is not reverenced by traditional French Catholics, but, in his favor, he is no enemy to religion in the public square, nor to monarchy.)

For more photos and original post go here...

Thanks for the article Christine, a tip of my beret to you.

Dieu sauve le Roy! Vive le Roy! Vive le Roy! Vive le Roy!
de Brantigny

The Spanish Inquisition

The Spanish Inquisition is poorly understood by Catholics. Protestants who prostylitize Catholics are very quick to play the Inquisistion card in order to show how mean and evil the Catholic faith is. We poor Catholics just sit on the receiving end, not aware of the true story of the Inquisistion. More often we are presented with the outright falsehoods perpetrated by authors like Dave Hunt who wrote... "In his History of the Inquisition, Canon Llorente, who was the Secretary to the Inquisition in Madrid from 1790-92 and had access to the archives of all the tribunals, estimated that in Spain alone the number of condemned exceeded 3 million, with about 300,000 burned at the stake." (Dave Hunt, A Woman Rides the Beast, page 79, also 242) Really, 3 million? Now today that is not a big number, but three million is still pretty hefty. That is 3,000,000. The Medieval source book claims that the population for Spain in 1450 was a total of 7 million. Now adjusting for births and deaths over the next 100 years a rational man could expect that the population of Spain might climb another million on the outside. Which would mean that the Inquisition put to death almost half of the population of Spain!

Then there are some who think of the Spanish Inquisition as it was portrayed by Monte Python,

While this is silly, it too does not bear any resemblance to the actual Inquisition and reality. I have added therefore an excerpt from a more rational article by Kenneth Schreiber which appeared this week in the Contrarians Review.

15 September 2008--By Kenneth Schreiber

The Spanish Inquisition is the most misunderstood aspect of history by secular historians. Perhaps no other series of historical events has been as much maligned and assaulted as the history of the Inquisition. If you doubt this assessment just conjure up your immediate psychological response to the following question: Which has proven more lethal the Spanish Inquisition or the American Court System?

If your initial response to this question is to claim that this an absurd comparison and your mind conjures up a mental image of dark, priest-ridden monasteries where intellectuals and minorities were converted by the swords of the Spanish Inquisition and sold into slavery by the willing accomplices of the Church – the Conquistadors, then first, your understanding of history is not very strong and you are better off not having an opinion. Second, you have been indoctrinated by a one-sided secular view of history.

The reason for this understanding is that the Spanish Inquisition as it is understood today in high school classrooms is understood through the lens of contemporary/secular views of right and wrong. To paraphrase John Paul II in Memory and Reconciliation1 – although it is important to issue an apology for historical instances where the systemic corruption of Church is not compatible with its theology, it also important to understand those historical instances through the view of theology and the historical context in which they took place. In this article we will apply exactly these criteria to make an apologetical understanding of the events that shaped the formation and the prosecution of the Spanish Inquisition. Lastly, we will draw a conclusion about the implications of this methodology for the study of history.

To understand the story of the Spanish Inquisition, we need to understand the Catholic conception of law. In the Catholic view there are two categories of law: Law of Nature and Law of Man.2 Laws of Nature are things that are inherent or organic and apply to all people. Laws of Man are laws made at man’s discretion to create order. The laws of man can be further broken down into Laws of the Church and Laws of the State.3 This follows the concept of the separate jurisdictions of auctoritas and potestas that Pope Gelasius I first introduced in 496 AD4 and then later theologians expanded upon. The Church or jurisdiction of auctoritas determines the “What?” and “Why?” of a given issue. The State or jurisdiction of potestas determines the “How?” of a given issue.

For example, let us take the issue of poverty. Poverty is neither inherent in nature nor unnatural. Therefore, since poverty is not governed by Natural Law, it falls under the jurisdiction of the Laws of Man to solve or not to solve. Auctoritas (the Church), will define poverty (the question of “what is poverty?”)5 and define if poverty should exist (the question of “why poverty?”). The Church differentiates between physical poverty and spiritual poverty and assigns the alleviation of physical poverty to potestas (the State). Potestas, then is responsible for alleviating poverty (the question of “how alleviate poverty?”) The State (with our participation) must decide if we should alleviate poverty through free market policies, voluntary social initiatives, or socialism. Then our policy experts in our political and economic systems must evaluate methods that would best alleviate (not perpetuate) poverty in relation to other laws.

Therefore, in the Catholic understanding of Law, if the State tried to coerce the Church into defining poverty or the existence of poverty – it imposes its view on the Church and the decision is not valid. Likewise, if the Church tried to coerce the State into implementing certain economic policies (like the Liberation Theologians did), then the state has a responsibility to resist this imposition because the Church may define the parameters through which the State operates, but may not assume secular power.

Now that we have broken down the Catholic conception of the Law as it relates to the separation of Church and State. One issue that will be self-evident in this investigation is the degree to which the Spanish Monarchy usurped the authority of the Church. You will notice that the State coerced the Church into appointing key figures in opposition to the interests of the Church and that the State coerced the Church into implementing secular policies. State, effectually, imposed on the Church the answers: “why?” and “what?” in the Inquisition and simultaneously coerced the Church into implementing policies for the State. Obviously, according to the Catholic conception of Law, the State was not qualified and thus should never have taken either of these actions which have negatively impacted both the Church and the populous. Finally, the story of Spanish Inquisition is the story of the State exercising unnatural influence on the Church, thus causing the Church to make prudential judgments6 that would ensure its long-term survival rather than acting within its proper legal jurisdiction.

Thanks and a tip of the beret to John F. Triolo, editor of the Contrarians review.

For commentaries on Dave Hunt see Dave Hunt and the Spanish Inquisition

For a Catholic Counterpoint go here...

de Brantigny


Neuvaine irrésistible au Sacré-Coeur de Jésus

1- O mon Jésus, qui avez dit : "En vérité, je vous le dis, demandez et vous recevrez, cherchez et vous trouverez, frappez et il vous sera répondu !"
Voici que je frappe, je cherche, je demande la grâce de...
Pater, Ave, Gloria
Sacré Cœur de Jésus, j’ai confiance et j’espère en Vous !

2- O mon Jésus, qui avez dit : "En vérité, je vous le dis, tout ce que vous demanderez à mon Père en mon nom, il vous l'accordera !"
Voici qu'à Votre Père, en Votre Nom, je demande la grâce de ...
Pater, Ave, Gloria
Sacré Cœur de Jésus, j’ai confiance et j’espère en Vous !

3- O mon Jésus, qui avez dit : "En vérité, je vous le dis, le ciel et la terre passeront, mais mes paroles ne passeront point!"
Voici que, m'appuyant sur l'infaillibilité de Vos Saintes Paroles, je demande la grâce de...
Pater, Ave, Gloria
Sacré Cœur de Jésus, j’ai confiance et j’espère en Vous !

Ô Cœur Sacré de Jésus, à qui il est impossible de ne pas avoir compassion des malheureux, ayez pitié de nous, pauvres pécheurs, et accordez-nous la grâce que nous Vous demandons par l'intercession du Cœur Immaculé de Marie, Votre et notre tendre Mère.

Saint Joseph, Père adoptif du Sacré Coeur de Jésus, priez pour nous.

Salve Regina

Saint Pio de Pietrelcina recommandait cette prière pour fléchir le Coeur de Jésus....

Du Blog Le Sacré Coeur de Jésus, de nouveau vous remercier mes amis!

Dieu le Roy,
de Brantigny

Travel buddy

I found this site and thought I would try it out. It seems I have been to 11% of the worlds countries. Possibly the future will expand my horizons. The world is how I know God exists and made it all.

Dieu le Roy!
de Brantigny

Le Petit Trianon lives again!

Catherine Delors site Versailles and More has posted this article about Le Petit Trianon, gift to the martyred-queen Marie-Antoinette from her beloved husband Louis XVI.

Many things are happening in Versailles these days. The Jeff Koons show, and now the completion of the restoration of Le Petit Trianon.

Le Petit Trianon, like much of Versailles, has undergone a major restoration over the past decades, and today the final part of the project, the servants' quarters, is opening to the public.

The idea was to recreate the place as it existed on the 5th of October 1789, when the royal family was forced by a mob of starving women to leave Versailles, never to return, and resettle into the Palace of the Tuileries in Paris.

Le Petit Trianon was Marie-Antoinette's very private estate on the grounds of Versailles. The little chateau itself already existed (it had been built under the prior reign for King Louis XV's mistress, Madame de Pompadour.)

Marie-Antoinette redecorated the chateau, and added a jardin à l'anglaise, complete with a grotto, a fake hamlet and her own theater. She was seated inside the grotto when she was heard the news of the arrival of the mob on the 5th of October. I sat there too, trying to imagine her feelings on that day.

But my own favorite spot is the delightful, diminutive theater, done in blue, white and gold. Marie-Antoinette loved to set up plays, including Beaumarchais's Les Noces de Figaro, forbidden by the royal censure for its attacks on the regime. There too you can imagine her, standing on the stage, playing the part of the maid Rosine, Figaro's fiancée. Barely a year away from the Revolution...

All is now restored and waiting for your visit.

There are more scenes and articles and may be found at the following sites, here... here... and here in English, via Tea at Trianon.
Here...here...and here which features a view from google... in Spanish via Trianon de la Reina

Thank you all and a tip of the beret to Catherine Delors,

Dieu le Roy, Vive la Reine, Dieu sauve le Roy!
de Brantigny


"Mary is our Powerful Intercessor".

My fellow Knight, Carlos, is writing a book specifically directed as a means for demonstrating the differences in the Catholic Bible, and those used by Mormons and Jehovah witnesses.

His book The Bible Path "A Practical Guide to Know the Biblical Foundations of the Catholic Faith" is still being written. Below is Carlos' article "Mary is our Powerful Intercessor".

1 Timothy 2, 1-15; John 2, 1-12; 2 Corinthians 5, 17-21; Hebrews 5, 1-7; John 2, 1-12; Revelation 12, 1-5; Psalm 2, 6-9; Acts 13, 30-33

The Bible is a great gift that God has given for our instruction. We are made spiritually rich if we read this book and meditate in the wisdom of the Holy Spirit that inspired so many holy men to write for our benefit. The Bible always tells the truth, however, many readers of the Bible misinterpret its message and misuse it by isolating some piece of scripture to support their personal points of view. Such conduct offends the Holy Spirit, who wants Scripture to be useful to teach and form the Christian soul, never to confuse it and lead it astray.

In this chapter we are going to discuss the misuse of one verse, 1 Timothy 2, 15: "For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." The apostle Paul wrote this verse to show the uniqueness of the mediation of Jesus and the capital importance of his sacrifice that rescued all mankind from eternal death and damnation. Here is the entire chapter of 1 Timothy.

We shall read it first to have some idea of the context:

1 Timothy 2, 1-15 — First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all men, for kings and all who are in high positions, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, godly and respectful in every way. This is good, and it is acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all, the testimony to which was borne at the proper time. For this I was appointed a preacher and apostle (I am telling the truth, I am not lying), a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth. I desire then that in every place the men should pray, lifting holy hands without anger or quarreling; also that women should adorn themselves modestly and sensibly in seemly apparel, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly attire but by good deeds, as befits women who profess religion. Let a woman learn in silence with all submissiveness. I permit no woman to teach or to have authority over men; she is to keep silent. For Adam was formed first, then Eve; and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. Yet woman will be saved through bearing children, if she continues in faith and love and holiness, with modesty.

In reading the whole chapter we see the apostle is writing about different types of intercession. He begins by recommending believers to intercede for all men, especially for those in high positions, such as kings and others that govern the people. The object of this intercession is that all men may know the truth. Right after that, the apostle affirms the uniqueness of God and the perfect mediation of Jesus. This is not a disconnected thought. St. Paul is not changing the subject. In ancient times, the offices of kings, emperors, consuls and the like, were both political and religious. In the ancient Roman Empire where St. Paul lived, the emperor was considered both a god and an intercessor between the gods and the people of the empire. In this passage, St. Paul is also reminding us of the truth. Jesus said "I am the truth, the way and the life" (John 14, 6). St. Paul is not talking only of the truth as a concept, he is also pointing at the fact that Jesus himself is the personification of truth. He knew very well how Jesus had been presented to Pontius Pilate before being condemned to death. He also knew that Pilate had asked Jesus: "What is the truth?" (John 18, 38). In that passage of the Gospels, the religious leaders bring Jesus to the Roman prefect. There Jesus declares to be a king of a heavenly kingdom who has come to this world to declare the truth and to intercede for his people (John 18, 28-40).

The rest of this article may be found here...

Thank you Carlos.
Dieu le Roy,
de Brantigny

Obama The New Messiah

I have often times iterated that I believe Barack Obama to be an anti-christ. That is AN anti-christ not nessarily the anti-christ. The adulation he receives from his devoted followers resembles an estatic outpouring of worship that just cheering crowds. So... by way of Idle Mendacity I present this from Is Barack the Messiah.

Now before you say that the above photo is just wrong. It was on Obama's site, but has since been removed. Why do you think that was?

All of the below quotes are from Obama diciples,(er followers).

"Many even see in Obama a messiah-like figure, a great soul, and some affectionately call him Mahatma Obama."
-- Dinesh Sharma

"We just like to say his name. We are considering taking it as a mantra."
-- Chicago Sun-Times

"A Lightworker -- An Attuned Being with Powerful Luminosity and High-Vibration Integrity who will actually help usher in a New Way of Being"
-- Mark Morford

“I cried all night. I’m going to be crying for the next four years,” he said. “What Barack Obama has accomplished is the single most extraordinary event that has occurred in the 232 years of the nation’s political history. ... The event itself is so extraordinary that another chapter could be added to the Bible to chronicle its significance.”
-- Jesse Jackson, Jr.

"This was the moment when the rise of the oceans began to slow and our planet began to heal."
-- Barack Obama

"Does it not feel as if some special hand is guiding Obama on his journey, I mean, as he has said, the utter improbability of it all?"
-- Daily Kos

"He communicates God-like energy..."
-- Steve Davis (Charleston, SC)

"Not just an ordinary human being but indeed an Advanced Soul"
-- Commentator Chicago Sun Times

"I'll do whatever he says to do. I'll collect paper cups off the ground to make his pathway clear." -- Halle Berry
I specifically find this disheartening, dB

"A quantum leap in American consciousness"
-- Deepak Chopra

"He is not operating on the same plane as ordinary politicians. . . . the agent of transformation in an age of revolution, as a figure uniquely qualified to open the door to the 21st century."
-- Gary Hart

"Barack Obama is our collective representation of our purest hopes, our highest visions and our deepest knowings . . . He's our product out of the all-knowing quantum field of intelligence."
-- Eve Konstantine

"This is bigger than Kennedy. . . . This is the New Testament." "I felt this thrill going up my leg. I mean, I don't have that too often. No, seriously. It's a dramatic event."
-- Chris Matthews

"[Obama is ] creative imagination which coupled with brilliance equals wisdom . . . [He is] the man for this time."
-- Toni Morrison

"Obama's finest speeches do not excite. They do not inform. They don't even really inspire. They elevate. . . . He is not the Word made flesh, but the triumph of word over flesh . . . Obama is, at his best, able to call us back to our highest selves."
-- Ezra Klein

"Obama has the capacity to summon heroic forces from the spiritual depths of ordinary citizens and to unleash therefrom a symphonic chorus of unique creative acts whose common purpose is to tame the soul and alleviate the great challenges facing mankind."
-- Gerald Campbell

"We're here to evolve to a higher plane . . . he is an evolved leader . . . [he] has an ear for eloquence and a Tongue dipped in the Unvarnished Truth."
-- Oprah Winfrey

“I would characterize the Senate race as being a race where Obama was, let’s say, blessed and highly favored. That’s not routine. There’s something else going on. I think that Obama, his election to the Senate, was divinely ordered. . . . I know that that was God’s plan."
-- Bill Rush

Thanks and a tip of the beret to Jack Bennett.
Dieu le Roy,
de Brantigny


Fall of the Papal States

On Durendal I found this little known and less understood destruction and fall of the Papal States.

Around 5am on the morning of the 20th of September 1870, the army of the nine-year-old Kingdom of Italy and it’s Masonic King, Vittorio Emanuele II, began the final attack on the Papal States. After four hours of bombarding the walls of Rome, the Italians succeeding in creating a breach near the Porta Pia and, in a show of disdain for the Vicar of Christ, sent in a dog named Pio pulling a cart of Protestant Bibles. Pope Pius IX, fearing more bloodshed, ordered his tiny army, who would have joyfully fought to the last man, to lay down their arms and surrender the Eternal City after a putting up a token resistance against the unjust aggressors. The Papal States and the temporal power of the Pope had come to an end.

The existence of the Papal States was an affront to the secular and nationalist “Enlightenment” ideologies that fueled the armed revolutions of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The revolutionaries seized Avignon and papal possessions in France in 1791; the northernmost Legations in Italy were taken in 1796; two years later in 1798 the Papal States themselves fell to the armies of the First French Republic and Pius VI taken prisoner, dying in exile the next year. Under his successor, Pius VII, the Papal States were restored in 1800, only to be invaded again by Bonaparte’s armies in 1808. Granted independence once more with the dissolution of the Napoleonic Empire in 1814, the Papal States were now dependant on the protection of foreign powers, notably the Austrian Empire.

Thanks and I tip my beret to those at Durendal and special thanks to J.D. Bennett author of the above article.

Dieu le Roy,
de Brantigny