le Chouans en Avant, Bivouac à Sully sur Loire

Du site La Troupe de Coeurs de Chouans une sortie à Sully sur Loire 17-18 Mai 2008. Oui, ils se rappèlent...

"- Combats, défilés, démonstration et maniements d'armes à poudre noire,
initiation au duel à l'épée.... le tout sur un bivouac savamment préparé par coupe-choux , les 25 chouans présents ont fait effet parmi les 400 participants costumés !
( d'ailleurs nous avons découvert de belles affiches publicitaires où la comtesse de la troupe et le gros de la troupe étaient mis "en avant" ).

Le soleil fût des nôtres contrairement à ce qu'avait prédit la météo, une très bonne ambiance régnait sur le campement et des "vive le Roy" nous firent chaud au coeur , nous connaissions plus de la moitié des reconstituants , et nos amis les bleus furent ravis du combat que nous avions organisé pour le public qui , lui aussi , fût plus nombreux que l'an dernier ... le choc a été violent , nous eûmes de légers blessés dans les 2 camps ... mais quelle joie de se frotter aux bleus !!!!!!

Côté prestations devant public: nous sommes passés 4 fois (au grand plaisir du public )! et dans la soirée , un défilé aux flambeaux, magnifique , devant le château illuminé !!!

Bref , encore un souvenir inoubliable que le journal de la Loire a mentionné avec une belle photo de la troupe!

Merci Chouans!
Vérité pour la Vendée!
de Brantigny

A French view of Jehanne

Catherine Delors has posted the following article on the Maid and how she is viewed in France.

I sent my daughter Geneviève to France to study at the the Catholic University of the West in Angers (UCO). She was pursuing a French language degree and one in history history, (she is my kid after all). She related a story to me, upon her return about a class session, where she alone participated in a talk about the Maid. No one in the class had ever heard of la Pucelle.

Like every other French child, I learned about Jeanne d'Arc in elementary school. Of all the characters I encountered in the course of my history lessons, she was the one who left the strongest impression on my young mind.

Years later, at the beginning of my career as an attorney, I read the transcripts of her trials. Time has passed, but my admiration for Jeanne (or Jehanne, as her name was spelled then) has remained the same. To me, she is one of the most extraordinary and beautiful figures in history.

Who would ever believe this story if it were not true? An illiterate peasant girl of 16 is entrusted with an army, proceeds to win decisive victories, turns the tide of a war that had been raging for a hundred years, is captured in battle, is tried as a heretic and is burned at the stake at the age of 19?

Jehanne was born in 1412 into a peasant family from Lorraine, in eastern France. The country, at the time of the Hundred Years' War, was divided between the victorious King of England, who also claimed the crown of France, and the legitimate heir, who did not even go by the name of King, and was content with the title of Dauphin.

At the age of 13, Jehanne has a series of visions where Saint Catherine, Saint Margaret and the Archangel Michael appear to her. The three Saints prompt her throw the English invaders out of the country and crown the Dauphin. A tall order for a teenager of the lowest social status.

Thanks and a tip of the beret to Catherine Delors.

de Brantigny

Sign of Hope

VATICAN CITY - The Vatican is slamming the door on attempts by women to become priests in the Roman Catholic Church. It has strongly reiterated in a decree that anyone involved in ordination ceremonies is automatically excommunicated.

A top Vatican official said in a statement Friday that the church acted following what it called "so-called ordinations" in various parts of the world.

Monsignor Angelo Amato of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith says the Vatican also wants to provide bishops with a clear response on the issue.

The church has always banned the ordination of women, stating that the priesthood is reserved for males. The new decree is explicit in its reference to women.

Thank God finally someone has a backbone in Rome. But, My question is this why do Bishops need a clear response on the issue. The Church is 2000 years old, it isn't like this is the first time it has come up.

It is not a matter of equal rights, it is a matter of right and wrong.

de Brantigny

St. Joan and the Royal House of France

My Job has preventing me from placing many articles this week, fortunately I have been able to read my favorite blogs. Toad Elena-Maria has posted this on Tea at Trianon...
Thanks Elena...

Most Catholics, I have concluded, do not have trouble accepting the fact that St. Joan of Arc donned male apparel and led armies to victory. What seems to disturb many people, however, is that she gave her help to a king, and worse yet, to a King of France. Many Americans seem to be convinced that monarchy is an intrinsically evil institution. They are not able to see beyond their own time and their own political process. I recently read a comment in which someone said that St. Louis of France was a saint "in spite of being a king." May I be so bold as to suggest that St. Louis saw his kingship as a vocation in which he served God and man. What is more, he saw it as a calling to share in the Kingship of Christ, from Whom he held his authority and to Whom he had to render an account. St. Joan, in her simple piety, viewed kingship in a similar manner. She honored her King Charles VII, although he was far from being a saint, because in doing so she gave honor to Christ the King. The office was deserving of respect, even if the man was not. On her banner she bore an image of Christ the King surrounded by the fleur de lys, the lilies of royal France. More

Please also visit the following sites:

St Joan of Arc Center

The Maid of Heaven

Le site francais: SteJeannedArc.net

et, Maison Jeanne d'Arc, Orleans

Thanks and I tip of the beret to Elena-Maria

de Brantigny


A short biography of la Pucelle

I have reposted this article from November of last year on la Pucelle. I hope to take time to add "a best of..." section to my blog which will link to my older posts which are no longer listed.

« En nom Dieu, les hommes d'armes batailleront et Dieu leur donnera la victoire. »
"In the name of God the men (at arms) will fight, and God will provide the victory"
Jehanne à Poitiers, mars 1429 (Joan at Poitiers, March 1429)

A Short Biography of Saint Joan of Arc

Many us were inspired by the CBS film on Joan of Arc with Lee Lee Sobieski. Though in my mind it is the best version of the life of Joan many of the fact were distorted or left out to keep the plot going along and making a dramatic film. A good point with this actress is that she was just about the right age which of course the Ingrid Bergman film couldnt quite pull off. Additionally, in the Bergman film, the script was parallel to the book by Mark Twain and the play by Bernard Shaw. The Lee Lee version was identifiably taken from her trial statements and the rehabilitation.

My friend Virginia Frohlick has placed on her site this short biography. I add it to whet the appitite, because, this is just a small portion of the most complete English language site dealing with the Maid. Virginia is the expert on Joan. The link above will transport you to her site.

Saint Joan was born on January 6, 1412, in the village of Domremy to Jacques and Isabelle d'Arc. Joan was the youngest of their five children. While growing up among the fields and pastures of her village, she was called Jeannette but when she entered into her mission, her name was changed to Jeanne, la Pucelle, or Joan, the Maid.

As a child she was taught domestic skills as well as her religion by her mother. Joan would later say, "As for spinning and sewing, I fear no woman in Rouen." And again, "It was my mother alone who taught me the 'Our Father' and 'Hail Mary' and the 'Creed;' and from none other was I taught my faith."

From her earliest of years Joan was known for her obedience to her parents, religious fervor, goodness, unselfish generosity and kindness toward her neighbors. Simonin Munier, one of Joan's childhood friends, tells how Joan had nursed him back to health when he was sick. Some of her playmates teased her for being 'too pious.' Others remembered how she would give up her bed to the homeless stranger who came to her father's door asking for shelter.

Joan was 'like all the others' in her village until her thirteenth year. "When I was about thirteen, I received revelation from Our Lord by a voice which told me to be good and attend church often and that God would help me." She stated that her 'Voices' were Saint Michael the Archangel, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. At first her 'Voices' came to her two or three times a week but as the time for her mission drew near (five years later), they visited her daily telling her to 'Go into France' to raise the siege of Orleans, conduct the Dauphin Charles to Reims for his crowning and to drive the English from the land.

Joan went to the neighboring town of Vaucouleurs, which means Valley of many colors. There she spoke to the loyal French governor by the name of Sir Robert de Baudricourt. After many rejections he finally agreed to send her to the Dauphin who at the time was living at the castle of Chinon.

On the evening of February 23, 1429, she began her mission for God. In the company of six men, she rode through the Gate of France on her way to Chinon. Joan reached this town on March 6th, but was not received by the Dauphin, Charles, until the evening of March 9th.
After being accepted and approved by a Church council headed by the Archbishop of Reims, Joan was allowed to lead the Dauphin's army. This part of her career was meteoric. She entered Orleans on the evening of April 29th and by May 8th the city had been freed. The Loire campaign started on June 9th and by June 19th the English were driven out of the Loire valley. The march to Reims started on June 29th and by July 17th Charles was crowned King of France in the cathedral of Reims.

From this time on, for reasons know only to King Charles, the king no longer valued Joan's advice and guidance. She had always told him that God had given her 'a year and a little longer' to accomplish His will but the king seemed to take no notice of it. For almost a year he wasted what time remained to Joan, until in frustration, she left the court. Her last campaign lasted from the middle of March until her capture at the town of Compiegne on May 23rd, 1430. Her 'year and a little longer' was over.

Abandoned by her king and friends, she started her year of captivity. As a prisoner of the Burgundians she was treated fairly but that all changed when on November 21st, 1430, she was handed over the English. How she survived their harsh treatment of her is a miracle in itself.

The English not only wanted to kill Joan but they also wanted to discredit King Charles as a false king by having Joan condemned by the Church as a witch and a heretic. To obtain this goal the English used those Church authorities whom they knew to be favorable to them and the staunchest of these was Bishop Cauchon.

Joan's trial of condemnation lasted from February 21st until May 23rd. She was finally burnt at the stake in Rouen's market square on May 30th, 1431.

Twenty-five years later the findings of Joan's first trial were overturned and declared 'null and void' by another Church court, who this time was favorable to King Charles. It was not until 1920 that the Church of Rome officially declared Joan to be a saint. Her feast day is celebrated on May 30th.

Note of Caution, Many writers have distorted the Story of this Saint, they have added calumny to her memory. You may find them on the net I will not place them here. I recommend all of these sites, as well as the books and CD rom. I recommend the Lee Lee version of the film and do not recommend "The Messenger" with Mila Jojovich, it is garbage. Here is a link to a silent film called the "Passion of Joan of Arc" from 1928...

Joan of Arc's Companions in Arms, English, French
The 'Companions' of Jeanne d'Arc and Others, short biographies
SteJeannedArc.net entirely in in French only
Maison de Jeanne d'Arc in French only
Allen Williamson's site on the maid

Joan of Arc: Her Story at Amazon.com
Joan of Arc by Maurice Boutet de Monvel, the narritive is a bit slanted and written for the youth of France but the illustrations are superb
CD Rom: this is a great resource, find it here
Maid of Heaven, The story of Joan of Arc. here...

My Favorite quotes of the Maid,*

"Je me attens a Dieu, mon createur, de tout; je layme de tout mon cuer..."
"I will follow God, my Creator in everything, I love Him with all my heart."
"Au France et au Roi, Mon ambition sera à servir. "...
"For France and the King, it is my ambition to serve"

(*medieval French)

Vive le Roi!
de Brantigny

Ste. Marguerite Marie Alacoque

Ste. Marguerite Marie Alacoque

Religious of the Visitation Order. Apostle of the Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, born at Lhautecour, France, 22 July, 1647; died at Paray-le-Monial, 17 October, 1690.

Her parents, Claude Alacoque and Philiberte Lamyn, were distinguished less for temporal possessions than for their virtue, which gave them an honourable position. From early childhood Margaret showed intense love for the Blessed Sacrament, and preferred silence and prayer to childish amusements. After her first communion at the age of nine, she practised in secret severe corporal mortifications, until paralysis confined her to bed for four years. At the end of this period, having made a vow to the Blessed Virgin to consecrate herself to religious life, she was instantly restored to perfect health. The death of her father and the injustice of a relative plunged the family in poverty and humiliation, after which more than ever Margaret found consolation in the Blessed Sacrament, and Christ made her sensible of His presence and protection. He usually appeared to her as the Crucified or the Ecce Homo, and this did not surprise her, as she thought others had the same Divine assistance. When Margaret was seventeen, the family property was recovered, and her mother besought her to establish herself in the world. Her filial tenderness made her believe that the vow of childhood was not binding, and that she could serve God at home by penance and charity to the poor. Then, still bleeding from her self-imposed austerities, she began to take part in the pleasures of the world. One night upon her return from a ball, she had a vision of Christ as He was during the scourging, reproaching her for infidelity after He had given her so many proofs of His love. During her entire life Margaret mourned over two faults committed at this time--the wearing of some superfluous ornaments and a mask at the carnival to please her brothers.

On 25 May, 1671, she entered the Visitation Convent at Paray, where she was subjected to many trials to prove her vocation, and in November, 1672, pronounced her final vows. She had a delicate constitution, but was gifted with intelligence and good judgement, and in the cloister she chose for herself what was most repugnant to her nature, making her life one of inconceivable sufferings, which were often relieved or instantly cured by our Lord, Who acted as her Director, appeared to her frequently and conversed with her, confiding to her the mission to establish the devotion to His Sacred Heart. These extraordinary occurrences drew upon her the adverse criticism of the community, who treated her as a visionary, and her superior commanded her to live the common life. But her obedience, her humility, and invariable charity towards those who persecuted her, finally prevailed, and her mission, accomplished in the crucible of suffering, was recognized even by those who had shown her the most bitter opposition.

Margaret Mary was inspired by Christ to establish the Holy Hour and to pray lying prostrate with her face to the ground from eleven till midnight on the eve of the first Friday of each month, to share in the mortal sadness He endured when abandoned by His Apostles in His Agony, and to receive holy Communion on the first Friday of every month. In the first great revelation, He made known to her His ardent desire to be loved by men and His design of manifesting His Heart with all Its treasures of love and mercy, of sanctification and salvation. He appointed the Friday after the octave of the feast of Corpus Christi as the feast of the Sacred Heart; He called her "the Beloved Disciple of the Sacred Heart", and the heiress of all Its treasures. The love of the Sacred Heart was the fire which consumed her, and devotion to the Sacred Heart is the refrain of all her writings. In her last illness she refused all alleviation, repeating frequently: "What have I in heaven and what do I desire on earth, but Thee alone, O my God", and died pronouncing the Holy Name of Jesus.

The discussion of the mission and virtues of Margaret Mary continued for years. All her actions, her revelations, her spiritual maxims, her teachings regarding the devotion to the Sacred Heart, of which she was the chief exponent as well as the apostle, were subjected to the most severe and minute examination, and finally the Sacred Congregation of rites passed a favourable vote on the heroic virtues of this servant of God. In March, 1824, Leo XII pronounced her Venerable, and on 18 September, 1864, Pius IX declared her Blessed. When her tomb was canonically opened in July, 1830, two instantaneous cures took place. Her body rests under the altar in the chapel at Paray, and many striking favours have been obtained by pilgrims attracted thither from all parts of the world. Her feast is celebrated on 17 October. St. Margaret Mary was canonized by Benedict XV in 1920.

The prayers of the feast of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque are found here...

Tea at Trianon has a similar feature today, here...

At Two Hearts Ablaze, here...

For a list of the Twelve Promises of the Sacred Heart, here...

Priére de sainte Jeanne d'Arc, patronne de la France

Priére de sainte Jeanne d'Arc, patronne de la France

Sainte Jeanne d'Arc, ton martyr est la grande victoire de Dieu sur nos ennemis. Intercède du Royaume des Cieux, pour que nous soyons préservés des guerres contre notre pays et des assauts contre notre foi. Que la France se souvienne qu'elle est la fille aînée de l'Eglise. Seigneur, nous te rendons grâce car Tu as béni notre pays en nous donnant Jeanne d'Arc. Suscite encore de nombreuses vocations pour garder intacte la mission apostolique de la France. Amen.

Prayer of Saint Jeanne D'Arc, patroness of France

Holy Saint Jeanne, your martyrdom is a great victory of God upon our enemies. Intercede with the Kingdom of Heaven, so that we may be preserved from wars against our country and assaults against our faith. What France remembers is that she is the elder daughter of the Church. Lord, we return to Your grace for You have blessed our country while giving us Saint Jeanne. Through Your mercy give rise again to many vocations to keep intact the apostolic mission of France. Amen.



Jehanne la Pucelle

I have blogged here many articles since the inception of this blog. Tomorrow two of my faith interests converge as feast days, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and the Feast of St Joan of Arc. Elena-Maria has placed the following article on her blog today in preperation for tomorrow's double feast. Joan or more correctly Jehanne, also known by the diminutive Jeanette, was never referred to by d'Arc or Darc. To her countrymen she was simply la Pucelle, the Maid.

Jehanne la Pucelle

" O how beautiful is the chaste generation with glory: for the memory thereof is immortal...." Wisdom 4:1

Tomorrow her feast coincides with the feast of the Sacred Heart, but in 1431 May 30 fell upon a Wednesday, the Vigil of Corpus Christi. It was around noon when Jehanne Darc, or Jehanne la Pucelle, "the Maid," as she called herself, was led into the public square of Rouen by enemy soldiers to where the stake awaited her. Nineteen years old, her head shaven, surrounded by placards branding her a witch, idolatress, and abjured heretic, she invoked the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, and St Michael the Archangel. She had been calumniated and condemned by those whose holy office it was to guide and protect her soul; she had been exposed to lewdness and impurity by those whose sacred duty it was to shelter her innocence and virginity. She was abandoned by the king whose crown her victories had won. She was in great interior darkness; the voices of her saints were silent.

Although she conversed with angels and saints, Joan the Maid was known to be practical and blunt. Very feminine, she missed her embroidery and her mother, yet she emerges on the pages of late medieval history like someone from the Acts of the Apostles. Surrounded by miracles, she was herself a Miracle; she led an army to victory at the age of 17, an illiterate peasant girl, who knew nothing of war or politics. She saved France as a nation, for it had all but ceased to exist when she came on the scene.

Such was her Faith that she confounded her judges, while exhausted, frightened and pushed to the breaking point of her mental and physical strength. Denied the Sacraments by her persecutors, she gazed upon the upheld crucifix, calling out, "Jesus! Jesus!" as the flames consumed her. When Joan's ashes were scattered in the river, her heart was found, untouched by the flames, and still bleeding.

"If I walk in the midst of the shadow of death, I shall fear no evil, for Thou art with me, O Lord Jesus." Communion Antiphon for the Feast of St Joan

St. Joan, pray for us!

de Brantingy


Veni Creator Spiritus

Listen and read the words below.

de Brantigny

Veni, Creátor Spíritus

As la Pucelle (the maid) travelled with her Priests from Chinon to Orleans she was acompanied by Monks who carrying crosses and her banner sang the "Veni Creátor Spíritus." below I have placed the words sung by the monks and priests on their journey.

Veni Creator Spiritus

Veni, Creátor Spíritus,
Mentes tuórum vísita,
Imple supérna grátia
Quæ tu creásti péctora.

Qui díceris Paráclitus,
Altíssimi donum Dei,
Fons vivus, ignis, cáritas,
Et spiritális únctio.

Tu septifórmis múnere,
Dígitus patérnæ déxteræ,
Tu rite promíssum Patris,
Sermóne ditans gúttura.

Accénde lumen sénsibus,
Infúnde amórem córdibus,
Infírma nostri córporis
Virtúte firmans pérpeti.

Hostem repéllas lóngius,
Pacémque dones prótinus,
Ductóre sic te prævio
Vitémus omne nóxium.

Per Te sciámus da Patrem,
Noscámus atque Fílium,
Teque utriúsque Spíritum
Credámus omni témpore.

Deo Patri sit glória,
Et Fílio, qui a mórtuis
Surréxit, ac Paráclito,
In sæculórum sæcula.


de Brantigny

Monarchist Quote

From Durendal and Mark Amesse a monarchist quote:

The character of Kings is sacred; their persons are inviolable; they are the anointed of the Lord, if not with sacred oil, at least by virtue of their office. Their power is broad---based upon the Will of God, and not on the shifting sands of the people's will...more

Thanks Mark, and a tip of the beret to you.

Dieu Le Roy!
de Brantigny

Marie-Antoinette as a composer

Anabel who writes from Argentina has placed this in her blog today... My poor translation from Spanish is below. One can here the melody by going to her blog and clicking the bar on the right off the page.

María Antonieta se desenvolvió enormemente en la música y en la actuación. Y por eso, no dejó de producir sus propias obras. Compuso unas cuantas melodías, entre las que son más famosas "C'est mon ami" (Es mi amigo) y "Portrait charmant"(retrato encantador). Ambas se pueden escuchar en este blog, yendo a la barra de la derecha.

Aquí estan las letras:

Marie-Antoinette enjoyed writing music and performing it, and because of that she did not stop producing her own works. She composed many melodies, among the more famous were "C'est mon ami" (This is my friend) and "Portrait charmant" (Charming portrait). Both can be heard on the Blog Trianon de la Reina, found here... on the main page at the bar to the right.

These are the words: en français

C'est mon ami

Ah s'il est dans votre village
Un berger sensible et charmant
Qu'on chérisse au premier moment
Qu'on aime ensuite davantage

C'est mon ami
Rendez-le moi
J'ai son amour
Il a ma foi

Si par sa voix douce et plaintive
Il charme l'écho de vos bois
Si les accents de son hautbois
Rendent la bergère pensive

C'est encore lui
J'ai son amour
Il a ma foi

Si même n'osant rien vous dire
Son seul regard sait attendrir
Si sans jamais faire rougir
Sa gaité fait toujours sourire

C'est encore lui
J'ai son amour
Il a ma foi

Si passant près de sa chaumière
Le pauvre en voyant son troupeau
Ose demander un agneau
Et qu'il obtienne encore la mère

Oh c'est bien lui
Rendez-le moi
J'ai son amour
Il a ma foi

"Portrait Charmant"

Portait charmant, portait de mon amie
Gage d'amour par l'amour obtenu
Ah viens m'offrir le bien que j'ai perdu
Te voir encore me rappelle à la vie.

Oui les voilà ses traits, ses traits que j'aime
Son doux regard, son maintien, sa candeur
Lorsque ma main te presse sur mon coeur
Je crois encore la presser elle-même

Non tu n'as pas pour moi les mêmes charmes
Muet témoin de nos tendres soupirs
En retraçant nos fugitifs plaisirs
Cruel portrait, tu fais couler mes larmes

Pardonne-moi mon injuste langage
Pardonne aux cris de ma vive douleur
Portait charmant, tu n'es pas le bonheur
Mais bien souvent tu m'en offres l'image

Thanks and a tip of the beret to Anabel

de Brantigny


New Blog

Bosco Peters from New Zealand has asked me to place his site on my blog. I am honoured. While Bosco is not a Roman Catholic, his site has remarkably Catholic ideals, prayers and articles. The prayers could have come out of the St Joseph Missal of 1962. So this is my shot for ecumenism. There won't be many I assure you.

I pray for a time when we can all be counted as one as Jesus desired.

Of course as a Catholic in good standing I can not place a seal of Nihil Obstat on this site but as a Christian brother I can not see any but his good intentions.


de Brantigny

Drinking water in Paris during the 18th century

I found this at Debutants Ball while looking for another article by Catherine Delors.
I think you will find this interesting...

The Seine River was everything to Paris. Barges brought essential merchandises from distant provinces. Often they went no further than in Paris, to be dismantled in the spot and sold as wood. One embankment specialized in the commerce of wheat, another was dedicated to the wine trade. The embankments were not the paved, clean ones we see now. At the time, they were muddy or sandy, depending on the location. Indeed the Roman name of the city, Lutetia, is said to be derived from the Latin lutum, “mud.”

In summer people went swimming in the river. They did it to exercise, and for many it was the only time of the year when they could enjoy a bath. With the onset of the Revolution, morals became more puritanical, and the Municipality of Paris passed an ordinance making it illegal to bathe nude in the Seine.

For those who could afford it, bathing establishments, installed on barges moored along the embankments, offered private cabins and showers. The poor were left with the option of bathing in their shirts or not at all. In any case, they washed their clothes in the river.

The Seine also served as an open-air sewer and garbage dump. The streets of Paris were only cleaned when it rained, and the runoff naturally flowed into the river. People also threw their solid waste in it since there was no organized garbage collection. In particular all of the detritus from the nearby slaughterhouses of the Chatelet district were dumped into the river. Contemporary accounts mention a pinkish scum floating on top.

People and animals often drowned in the Seine, and it provided the “safest” means of disposing of the corpses of murder victims. The bodies were sometimes recovered downstream, robbed of any remaining possessions and buried unceremoniously in the mud of the banks. Those corpses fished from the river within Paris were taken to the Morgue, also in the Chatelet district, where relatives could identify and claim them.

Within city limits fountains were rare and often enclosed within the private gardens of convents or mansions. Most were therefore inaccessible to the public. That left - you guessed it - the Seine! Water carriers filled their buckets in the river and for a few sols brought the water up many flights of stairs (six-story buildings were frequent within the city.) And yes, people drank it.

The rich, of course, could afford to have spring water brought from the suburbs. They also drank excellent wines, much the same as our best modern French wines. Poor people drank “wine” as well, or rather a liquid by that name, but it often had nothing to do with fermented grape juice. It was a toxic mix of various chemicals and purple dye. From a health standpoint, it would have been a difficult choice between Seine water and fraudulent wine. More...

Thanks and a tip of the beret to Catherine.

Dieu sauve Le Roy! Vive le Roy!
de Brantigny