Scots in the hundred years war

Rarely remembered now is the relationship between France and Scotland in the Hundred Years War.

There had long been an alliance between them more popularly known as the Auld Alliance left( in French : Vieille Alliance). This friendship was forged because the two countries were at war with England, though for different reasons. Charles V was the first king to employ Scotsmen in his bodyguard, but it is principally with Charles VII that the alliance was properly employed by the creation of the first elements of Scots Guards ( Gensdarms Ecossais) who were maintained by tradition in the King’s Household until the 18th century and again under the Restoration.

In 1420, a group of Scots landed at La Rochelle, to assist the Dauphin Charles. In command was John Stewart son of the Regent of Scotland the Duke of Albany. He was made constable of France, in 1423 for his victory a Bauge. He was killed in the battle of Verneuil in 1424.

At Orleans there were three companies of Scots knights, led by William Hamilton, Thomas Houston, John Wischard (Oulchard in French) and five squires, Thomas Blair, Henry Galoys (Galloway), Edward Lennox, David Melvill and Alexander Norwill.

The Scots never abandoned their posts and always fought with the upmost gallantry, they maintain a post of honour in French history.

Some of the nobles that fought alonside Joan are:

BLAIR (alias Blar), Thomas. – This Scottish squire was present at Orleans from the beginning of the siege, commanding a company of 20 men-at-arms and 29 bowmen.

Coat of arms: Argent a chevron Sable between three tortaux.

WISHART, John of (alias Wischard, Wischart, Ouschart or Oulchart). – John Wishart of Pittarow, a Scottish knight, was doubtless the son of the 5th baron of this name. He arrived at Orleans in October 1428, with 48 men-at-arms and 105 bowmen. He returned to France in 1436 to accompany Princess Margaret of Scotland who marry the Dauphin Louis (future King Louis XI). John Wishart was still alive in 1443.

Coat of arms: Argent three piles Gules meeting in point.

GALOYS (GALLOWAY), Henry. –This Scottish squire led at Orleans a company of bowmen whose commander was William Hamilton. At the beginning of the siege, this company was made of 10 men-at-arms and 30 bowmen. The name "Galoys" was possibly for "Galloway" in the French chronicles.

Coat of arms of Galloway: Azure, a lion Argent langued, armed and crowned Or.


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