El rococó fue un estilo que podemos ubicar en el siglo XVIII, principalmente asociado a las artes decorativas. Se presenta en el auge del Barroco, aunque también puede ser visto como la caída de ese movimiento. El término rococó proviene de la palabra francesa "rocaille" (piedra) y "coquille" (concha), elementos de gran importancia para la ornamentación de interiores. El mismo fue utilizado por primera vez en el siglo XIX de manera peyorativa, denotando la frívola sobre-elaboración como característica principal del estilo según los críticos.
El rococó evolucionó en Francia por, y como una reacción en contra de, el formal y de alguna manera pesado estilo centrado en la corte de Luis XIV en Versalles, el Barroco. Luego de la muerte del Rey Sol en 1715 la corte de mudó a Paris y el rococó reflejaba el nuevo gusto por decoraciones mas livianas y delicadas, adecuadas para hogares en la ciudad mas pequeños, mas confortables y mas íntimos.
Este estilo retrataba un mundo de artificialidad, dogmatismo y juegos. Aunque poco formal, era en esencia un arte de la aristocracia y enfatizaba lo que ahora parece haber sido el irreflexibo e indulgente estilo de vida de esa gente y no tanto la moral, la piedad, la disciplina, la razón o el heroísmo (los cuales son parte del estilo Barroco) .
En pintura, los temas más abundantes son las fiestas galantes y campestres, las historias pastoriles, las aventuras amorosas y cortesanas. Las composiciones son sensuales, alegres y frescas, predominan los colores pasteles, suaves y claros. La mujer se convierte en el foco de inspiración, ya que es la figura bella y sensual.
The Rococo was a style of the 18th century, chiefly associated to the decorative arts. It was begun in the height of the Baroque era, although it can also be seen as the fall of that movement. The rococo term comes from the French word "rocaille" (stone) and "coquille" (seashell), elements of great importance for interior ornamentation. the term was utilized in the 19th century as a pejorative, denoting the frivolous elaboration as the main characteristic of the style according to the critics.
The Rococo evolved in France by, and as a reaction against, the formal and of some way heavy style centered in the fashion of Louis XIV at Versailles, called Baroque. After the death of the King Sun in 1715, fashion relocated to Paris. Rococo reflected the new flavor of decorations but more light and delicate, adequate for homes in the city, small, comfortable and intimate.
The Rococo style portrayed a world of artificiality, dogmatism and play. Although a little formal, was in essence an art of the aristocracy and emphasized what now seems to have been an inflexible and indulgent way of life of that people and not so much the moral, pious, disciplined, reason or the heroism which are part of the Baroque style.
In painting, the most abundant themes are the rural and gallant festivals, the pastoral, courteous and loving adventures. The compositions are sensual, happy and fresh, they dominate the clear smooth pastel colors. The woman becomes the focus of inspiration, since is the sensual and beautiful figure.
(translation is mine)
Dieu Le Roy,
*One can see in the above portrait that the woman is fashionably dressed and while the background is blurred as if it doesn't matter save only to place her in perspective. She, and particularly her face is the center of attention. is the center of attention. She is wearing a 'Robe a la Francaise' a style of dress popular in the 1750-1760's.
From the Mad Monarchist via Tea at Trianon I present this article about Queen Maria Theresa of France, wife of Louis XIV. It seems all the Queens of France were long suffering, forgiving, and very pious.
Thanks to Elena-Maria,
Dieu le Roy,
LOUIS XIV, L'HOMME ET LE ROI
Pour la première fois dans son histoire, Versailles consacre une exposition au roi Louis XIV. 20 octobre 2009 – 7 février 2010
L'exposition Louis XIV, l'homme et le roi rassemble plus de 300 oeuvres exceptionnelles provenant de collections du monde entier, et jamais réunies jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Peintures, sculptures, objets d’art, mobilier seront ainsi exposés. Ces chefs-d’oeuvre, pour certains jamais présentés en France depuis l’Ancien Régime, permettront au public de mieux connaître le célèbre monarque tant par ses goûts personnels que par son image publique.
Gauche...Louis XIV Bernini, 1665 Versailles
L'image du roi
La richesse de l’image de Louis XIV est sans précédent dans l’histoire : Louis XIV est le Roi Soleil, c’est-à-dire Apollon en tant que divinité solaire. Façonnée par le souverain lui-même et ses conseillers, cette image évolue sans cesse pour épouser des figures obligées : le roi de guerre menant ses troupes, le roi mécène protecteur des arts, le roi très chrétien défenseur de l’Eglise, le roi de gloire, image const ruite pour la postérité. Cette gloire visible, allant jusqu’au mythe, qui se construit de son vivant, s’est fondée sur l’excellence des artistes, tels que Le Bernin, Girardon, Rigaud, Cucci, Gole, Van der Meulen, Coysevox qui s’appliquent à sublimer le portrait royal, et que l’exposition permettra de redécouvrir.
Le goût du roi
Roi protecteur des arts et roi collectionneur, il rivalisait avec les autres souverains d’Europe qui étaient de véritables connaisseurs. Bénéficiant de l’héritage de Mazarin, Louis XIV forme son goût au contact direct des artistes, et grâce aux relations personnelles qu’il établit avec eux : Le Brun et Mignard pour la peinture, Le Vau et Hardouin-Mansart pour l’architecture, Le Nôtre pour l’art des jardins, Lully pour la musique, Molière pour le théâtre. En rassemblant les oeuvres appréciées du Roi, un véritable portrait d’un amateur d’art passionné et d’un véritable homme de goût se dessine à travers joyaux, camées, médailles, miniatures, objets d’art, mais aussi tableaux et sculptures dont il aime s’entourer dans le Petit Appartement à Versailles.
Vive le Roy!
By CHRISTOPHER S. RUGABER, AP Economics Writer Christopher S. Rugaber, Ap
WASHINGTON – The number of newly laid-off workers filing claims for jobless benefits rose more than expected last week, as employers remain reluctant to hire even with the economy showing signs of recovery.
Claims had fallen in five out of the previous six weeks and most economists expect that trend to continue, but at a slow pace, as jobs remain scarce.
The report is "slightly disappointing," Ian Shepherdson, chief U.S. economist at High Frequency Economics, wrote in a note to clients, "but it does not change the core story, which is that ... a clear downward trend in claims has emerged" over the past two months.
The Labor Department said Thursday that new jobless claims rose to a seasonally adjusted 531,000 last week, from an upwardly revised 520,000 the previous week. Wall Street economists had expected only a slight increase, according to Thomson Reuters.
This of course goes against what the administration says, via the man-gods representive and head of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke said Tuesday setember 15th that the recession has ended, at least based on the numbers.
"From a technical perspective, the recession is very likely over at this point," Bernanke told a conference at the Brookings Institution. But "it's still going to feel like a very weak economy for some time." more...
This is the most clear pipe dream I have seen since Bag Dad Bob during the Iraq invasion telling reporters that the Iraqi forces were on the verge of a major victory as US tanks rolled down the street behind him.
Dieu le Roy!
WASHINGTON (Reuters) – A top Republican invoked the memory of the scandal-marred Nixon administration on Wednesday to urge U.S. President Barack Obama to "back up" and not "start an enemies list."
Senator Lamar Alexander told Reuters he has begun to see the Obama White House adopting an attitude similar to that of the Richard Nixon White House four decades ago, that "everybody is against us and we are going to get them."
Alexander cited as examples the Obama administration's suggestion that it may support stripping the insurance industry of its exemption of federal anti-trust laws, its clash with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the president saying he will call out people who oppose him and boycott Fox News network.
Alexander, a member of the congressional Republican leadership, said he is "suggesting that the president back up" and "don't start an enemies list."
Alexander made the comments at the Reuters Washington Summit, a series of interviews with key Washington figures, in advance of a speech that he plans to give later in the day on the same topic on the Senate floor.
Next it will be short walk to the scaffold.
Dieu le Roy!
By NICOLE WINFIELD, Associated Press Writer Nicole Winfield,
VATICAN CITY – The Vatican announced a stunning decision Tuesday to make it easier for Anglicans to convert, reaching out to those who are disaffected by the election of women and gay bishops to join the Catholic Church's conservative ranks.
Pope Benedict XVI approved a new church provision that will allow Anglicans to join the Catholic Church while maintaining many of their distinctive spiritual and liturgical traditions, including having married priests.
Cardinal William Levada, the Vatican's chief doctrinal official, announced the new provision at a new conference.
In the past, such exemptions had only been granted in a few cases in certain countries. The new church provision is designed to allow Anglicans around the world to access a new church entity if they want to convert.
The decision immediately raised questions about how the new provision would be received within the 77-million strong Anglican Communion, the global Anglican church, which has been on the verge of a schism over divisions within its membership about women bishops, an openly gay bishop and the blessing of same-sex unions.
The Anglican's spiritual leader, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams, downplayed the significance of the new provision and said it wasn't a Vatican commentary on Anglican problems.
"It has no negative impact on the relations of the communion as a whole to the Roman Catholic church as a whole," he said in London.
Conservative Party lawmaker Ann Widdecombe, who left the Church of England because of its policies for the Catholic Church, welcomed the Vatican's decision.
"I'm delighted if it does become easier, because when we had the last big exodus in 1992 over the ordination of women, the Catholic Church was not ready," she said in London. "There were enormous discrepancies up and down the country, and the direction from the Vatican came late in the day."
The new Catholic church entities, called personal ordinariates, will be units of faithful established within local Catholic Churches, headed by former Anglican prelates who will provide spiritual care for Anglicans who wish to be Catholic.
They would most closely resemble Catholic military ordinariates, special units of the church established in most countries to provide spiritual care for the members of the armed forces and their dependents.
"(This will) facilitate a kind of corporate reunion of Anglican groups" into the Catholic Church, Levada said.
Anglicans split with Rome in 1534 when English King Henry VIII was refused a marriage annulment.
The new canonical provision is a response to the many requests from Anglo-Catholics who want to come back, increasingly disillusioned with the progressive bent of the Anglican Communion. Many have already left and consider themselves Catholic but have not found an official home in the 1.1-billion strong Catholic Church.
By welcoming them in with their own special provision, Benedict has confirmed the increasingly conservative bent of his church. The decision follows his recent move to rehabilitate four excommunicated ultra-conservative bishops, including one who denied the full extent of the Holocaust, in a bid to bring their faithful back under the Vatican's wing.
Levada declined to give figures on the number of requests that have come to the Vatican, or on the anticipated number of Anglicans who might take advantage of the new structure.
One group, known as the Traditional Anglican Communion, has made its bid to join the Catholic Church known. The fellowship, which split from the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1990, says it has spread to 41 countries and has 400,000 members, although only about half are regular churchgoers.
The new canonical provision allows married Anglican priests and even seminarians to become ordained Catholic priests — much the same way that Eastern rite priests who are in communion with Rome are allowed to be married. However, married Anglicans couldn't become Catholic bishops.
The Vatican announcement immediately raised questions about how the Vatican's long-standing dialogue with the Archbishop of Canterbury could continue. Noticeably, no one from the Vatican's ecumenical office on relations with Anglicans attended the news conference; Levada said he had invited representatives to attend but they said they were all away from Rome.
Just last week, the Vatican's top ecumenical official, Cardinal Walter Kasper, told reporters: "We are not fishing in the Anglican pond," when asked about the Vatican's negotiations with would-be converts.
Levada stressed that ecumenical dialogue with the global Anglican church would remain a priority. But he said the goal of that dialogue for 40 years had been to achieve "full visible unity."
To downplay suggestions of poaching, the Catholic archbishop of Westminster and Williams, the Anglican leader, issued a joint statement saying the decision "brings an end to a period of uncertainty" for Anglicans wishing to join the Catholic Church.
And at a press conference in London, Williams tried to put the best face on the decision.
"It has no negative impact on the relations of the communion as a whole to the Roman Catholic church as a whole," he said.
But Williams' representative in Rome, the Very Rev. David Richardson, called the Vatican's decision "surprising," given that the Catholic Church in the past had welcomed individual Anglicans in without creating what he called "parallel structures" for entire groups of converts.
"The two questions I would want to ask are 'why this and why now,'" he told The Associated Press. "Why the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has decided to embrace that particular method remains unclear to me."
Also unclear, he said, was the Vatican's target audience: those Anglicans who have already left the Anglican Communion, or current members. Levada said it covered both.
"If it's for former Anglicans, then it's not about our present difficulties, then it's people who have already left," Richardson said. If it's current Anglicans, "There is in my mind an uncertainty for whom it is intended."
The Anglican Communion has been roiled for years over disagreement on the role of women. But the long-standing divisions over how Anglicans should interpret the Bible erupted in 2003 when the Episcopal Church consecrated the first openly gay bishop, V. Gene Robinson of New Hampshire.
Williams has struggled ever since to keep the church from splitting, frustrated by moves by churches in the United States, Canada and elsewhere to bless gay relationships.
At least four conservative U.S. dioceses and dozens of individual Episcopal parishes have voted to leave the national denomination since 2003, with many affiliating themselves instead with like-minded Anglican leaders in African and elsewhere.
The Vatican announcement was kept under wraps until the last moment: The Vatican only announced Levada's briefing Monday night, and Levada only flew back to Rome at midnight after briefing Catholic bishops and Williams about the decision.
By tomorrow the one world religion nuts will be out of the woodwork condeming this loss to protestantism.
Dieu le Roy,
Following Henry VI's episode of insanity in 1453, the subsequent outbreak of the Wars of the Roses and the evident loss of the military ascendancy for the benefit of the French, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their claim to the French throne and lost all their land on the continent. Except for Calais most of what is now France remained in French control.
1812... The Ogre, Napoleon Bonaparte begins his retreat from Moscow.
Sitting in the ashes of a ruined Moscow without having received a Russian capitulation, and facing a Russian maneuver forcing him out of Moscow, Napoleon started his long retreat on this date. By December 14, 1812, they were expelled from Russia. According to the popular legend only about 22,000 of Napoleon's men survived the Russian campaign. "In the small village of Gorodnia, not far from Maloyaroslavets after the battle of October,12 the fate of the Great Army was decided. This picture by Vereschagin shows that dramatic moment... The Emperor conquered a half of the word is sitting on a hard bench in a poor peasant hut. This furniture is so unsuitable to the grandeur of the Great Emperor! He is sitting and thinking: "To break out or to retreat?" "
1781... It was on this date also, that Lord Cornwallis surrendered to Washington at Yorktown.
Dieu le Roy!
Painting and narritive was borrowed from my friend Nick's site Russian Generals and Naval Commanders of the Napolionic Epoch... Nick and his family live in Belgorad, Russia.
Like her deceased parents, Marie-Thérèse remained a devout Roman Catholic.
St. Louis XVI, King and Martyr,
Pray for us...
St. Marie-Antoinette, Mother, Queen, and Martyr,
Pray for us...
Dieu le Roy!
Last Friday while at a restaurant drinking a diet lemonade (just in case my doctor is reading this) I read the headline of the October 16th edition of Raleigh, News and Observer, below...
North Carolina forced to free 20 violent criminals
RALEIGH, N.C. Twenty murderers, rapists and robbers sentenced to life in North Carolina prisons in the 1970s will be released at the end of October as a result of recent court rulings.
Most of the inmates are in their 50s and 60s, but many of them were convicted years ago of gruesome crimes that might have kept them locked up longer today. One of them successfully petitioned the courts to recognize that old laws defined a life sentence as 80 years, and that another law cut those sentences in half.
Ten of those scheduled to be released were sex offenders, including men who raped young girls. Seven have spent time on death row. The one woman in the group was convicted of murdering a state trooper while fleeing a bank robbery.
State officials said Thursday they have no choice but to release them.
"I am appalled that the state of North Carolina is being forced to release prisoners who have committed the most heinous crimes, without any review of their cases," said Gov. Beverly Perdue.
Thomas Bennett, executive director of the N.C. Victim Assistance Network, worries about the victims' safety and stability.
"This will open new wounds and re-traumatize crime victims," Bennett said. "These are bad actors. These are not people we want on the streets."
Perdue's office said she was determined to find a way to keep the inmates in prison, but a spokesman for the state's attorney general said it is unlikely she will prevail.
"Our lawyers have argued just about everything they can think of to keep this from happening," said Noelle Talley, a spokeswoman for Attorney General Roy Cooper. "The Supreme Court has the final say."
The inmates are scheduled to be released Oct. 29, just 20 days after the North Carolina Supreme Court declined to overturn a state Court of Appeals decision that recalculated life sentences applied to crimes committed during the 1970s.
Prison officials expect another eight to 10 inmates a year over the next several years to qualify for release under these new guidelines.
Those inmates due to be released owe their freedom to Bobby Bowden, 60, a former death row inmate convicted in 1975 of killing two Fayetteville men.
In 2005 Bowden appealed to a local judge in Cumberland County, arguing that he had served his "life" sentence. Bowden's pitch failed locally, but last year the state Court of Appeals ruled that Bowden's math was correct. Last week, the state Supreme Court issued a brief upholding the Court of Appeals ruling.
Bowden has spent 36 years in prison. But during a period of years in the 1970s, state law defined a life sentence as 80 years. In 1981, the state's sentencing laws were revised again, applying a retroactive reduction.
Under the changes, sentences levied before 1981 were essentially cut in half. So, dozens of inmates sentenced to life for crimes committed in the 1970s had their terms reduced to 40 years.
Inmates such as Bowden chiseled away at their 40-year sentences even further with "merit time," months and years knocked off their sentences for good behavior, for taking on jobs while in prison and for completing degree programs. All the inmates to be turned loose on Oct. 29 earned some sort of merit credit.
Since 1994, when North Carolina eliminated parole*, a life sentence in North Carolina has meant the convict will die behind bars. But only first-degree murder can carry a life sentence, and now, the shortest sentence someone convicted now of first-degree forcible rape can serve is 12 years.
State correction officials have been working furiously to prepare the 20 inmates for their release and alert the victims and their families. Staff spent this week urging relatives of these inmates to take them in on Oct. 29. They have also been trying to track down victims, many of whom have long since lost touch with the court system.
"In some cases, there's shock when we call," said Keith Acree, a DOC spokesman. "In other cases, there's uncertainty. In a lot of cases, the best we can do is leave a message on a machine."
In the meantime, Acree said, some local prosecutors and police are rifling through old court files, looking for crimes with which they never bothered to charge these defendants. Other officials are running the inmates' names in a national crime database to see if they are wanted on crimes outside North Carolina.
"They are looking for any sort of issue that will allow these people to stay locked up," Acree said.
Bowden, the inmate who launched this battle, may be one of the last to leave.
The Court of Appeals sent his case back to a Cumberland County judge to calculate his exact "life sentence" using the new formula. The judge may not have time to figure that new number soon enough for Bowden to join the others leaving prison at the end of the month.
(News researcher Brooke Cain contributed to this report.)
To my astonishment, Whoopi Goldberg did not offer a comment.
Yes, where was all that outrage with Roman Polanski...?
Dieu le Roy!
More may be found here...
Prison Inmates 40,951
Female Inmates 3,065