In keeping with my Patriotic feelings today, I present the Anthem of the Ancient Province of Normandy,
For my friend Catherine Delors who resides in Paris the city at the center of the earth.Who is a Normand...
I present an excerpt...
Democracy in its purest sense should mean nothing but a peaceful transition of political officeholders. That is the sense in which Ludwig von Mises favored the idea: as an alternative to violent revolution. But democracy, as the system has been applied in this century, has come to mean something else. The democratic state is supposed to embody the people's will-or the "general will," in Rousseau's phrase. Hans-Hermann Hoppe calls this democracy "the god that failed."
Democracy has turned out to be not majority rule but rule by well-organized and well-connected minority groups who steal from the majority. It has also spawned exactly what Woodrow Wilson desired most: autocratic and centrally consolidated government. It is not a coincidence that government has grown as the franchise has been extended: more and more groups have been given the opportunity to help themselves to the liberty and property of others. more
El proceso del collar sirve para poner a la luz del día muchas intimidades -unas falsas, otras verdadera- de la corte francesa. La reina se convierte en símbolo de la decadente monarquía y se concentra en su persona todo el odio del pueblo.
La situación financiera se agrava día a día. Las reformas, pactos y alianzas intentados por los ministros no conducen a ningún resultado práctico. El desorden imperaba en todas partes, todo mundo criticaba y nadie obedecía; el pan faltaba y el dinero se había agotado. La situación es inaguantable y se convoca a los Estados Generales.
El 5 de mayo de 1789 tiene lugar en Versalles la solemne ceremonia de apertura de los Estados Generales. Los reyes acuden a la inauguración y María Antonieta se ve obligada a soportar la frialdad, los desaires y hasta abucheos de la gente. Por otro lado y al mismo tiempo, su hijo mayor languidecía en su lecho de muerte.
Nobleza, clero y pueblo (las tres órdenes que constituían los Estados Generales) no se ponen de acuerdo. El 17 de junio, el tercer Estado, el pueblo, se constituye en Asamblea Nacional, y el 20 proclama el principio de revolucionario de la soberanía del pueblo. El 9 de julio la Asamblea toma el calificativo de Constituyente y se crea una comisión que trabaje para la formulación y redacción de una Constitución. El 14 de julio el pueblo de París, amotinado, se apodera de la Bastilla, la prisión del Estado. Empieza la revuelta
The Affair of the Necklace serves to shed light on the many intimacies -some false, others true of the French Court. The Queen becomes symbol of a decadent monarchy and all the hatred of the people is concentrated on her person.
The financial situation is aggravated day by day. The reforms, pacts and alliances tried by the ministers have no practical result. The disorder reigns everywhere, every wordis criticized and nobody is obeyed; the bread is scarce and the money has been exhausted. The situation is intolerable and Estates General is called.
On May 5, 1789 the solemn opening ceremony of the Estates General takes place at Versailles. The King and Queen attend the inauguration and Marie-Antoniette is obliged to bear the coldness, the scorn and even booings of the people. At the same time, her older son languishing on his deathbed.
Nobility, clergy and commoners (the three orders that constituted the Estates General) can not come to an agreement. On June 17, the third State, the commoners is constituted in National Assembly, and the 20 proclam the principle of revolution over the sovereignty of the crown. On July 9 the Natioanal Assembly becomes the description of Constituency and a commission is created that work for the formulation and editing of a Constitution. On July 14 the city of Paris, in rebellion, seizes the Bastille the prison of the State.
Thus begins the revolution.
Merci (oops I mean gracias) and a tip of the beret to Anabel for her post.
Dieu Sauve le Roy.
Today is the anniversary of the death of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778 was a major philosopher, literary figure, and composer of the Enlightenment whose political philosophy influenced the French Revolution and the development of liberal and socialist theory. With his Confessions and other writings, he invented modern autobiography and encouraged a new focus on the building of subjectivity that bore fruit in the work of thinkers as diverse as Hegel and Freud. His novel Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse was one of the best-selling fictional works of the eighteenth century and was important to the development of romanticism. Rousseau made important contributions to music as a theorist and a composer. He had been buried in Paris Pantheon since 1794.
Rousseau saw a fundamental divide between society and human nature. Rousseau believed that man was good when in the state of nature (the state of all other animals, and the condition humankind was in before the creation of civilization and society), but is corrupted by society. This idea has often led to attributing the idea of the noble savage to Rousseau, an expression first used by John Dryden in The Conquest of Granada (1672). Rousseau, however, never used the expression himself and it does not adequately render his idea of the natural goodness of humanity.
Rousseau's idea of natural goodness is complex and easy to misunderstand. Contrary to what might be suggested by a casual reading, the idea does not imply that humans in the state of nature act morally; in fact, terms such as 'justice' or 'wickedness' are simply inapplicable to pre-political society as Rousseau understands it. Humans there may act with all of the ferocity of an animal. They are good because they are self-sufficient and thus not subject to the vices of political society. He viewed society as artificial and held that the development of society, especially the growth of social interdependence, has been inimical to the well-being of human beings.
Perhaps Rousseau's most important work is The Social Contract, which outlines the basis for a legitimate political order. Published in 1762, it became one of the most influential works of political philosophy in the Western tradition. It developed some of the ideas mentioned in an earlier work, the article Economie Politique, featured in Diderot's Encyclopédie. The treatise begins with the dramatic opening lines, "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they." Rousseau claimed that the state of nature was a primitive condition without law or morality, which human beings left for the benefits and necessity of cooperation. As society developed, division of labour and private property required the human race to adopt institutions of law. In the degenerate phase of society, man is prone to be in frequent competition with his fellow men while at the same time becoming increasingly dependent on them. This double pressure threatens both his survival and his freedom. According to Rousseau, by joining together through the social contract and abandoning their claims of natural right, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. This is because submission to the authority of the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are, collectively, the authors of the law.
While Rousseau argues that sovereignty should be in the hands of the people, he also makes a sharp distinction between sovereignty and government. The government is charged with implementing and enforcing the general will and is composed of a smaller group of citizens, known as magistrates. Rousseau was bitterly opposed to the idea that the people should exercise sovereignty via a representative assembly.
Rather, they should make the laws directly. It was argued that this would prevent Rousseau's ideal state from being realized in a large society, such as France was at the time. Much of the subsequent controversy about Rousseau's work has hinged on disagreements concerning his claims that citizens constrained to obey the general will are thereby rendered free.
Rousseau was most controversial in his own time for his views on religion. His view that man is good by nature conflicts with the doctrine of original sin and his theology of nature expounded by the Savoyard Vicar in Émile led to the condemnation of the book in both Calvinist Geneva and Catholic Paris. In the Social Contract he claims that true followers of Jesus would not make good citizens. This was one of the reasons for the book's condemnation in Geneva. Rousseau attempted to defend himself against critics of his religious views in his Letter to Christophe de Beaumont, the Archbishop of Paris.
Dieu le Roy...
The N.C. Museum of History in Raleigh announces the acquisition of a Confederate battle flag associated with a major turning point of the Civil War - the death of Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. The flag was carried by the 18th Regiment North Carolina Troops, which was responsible for the accidental shooting of the Confederate general at Chancellorsville, Va., on May 2, 1863. Severely injured by gunfire, Jackson died a week later of pneumonia.
That fateful May 2 evening, the 18th North Carolina was in a line of battle ready to attack retreating Union troops. Jackson and his staff rode out in front of the Confederate line on reconnaissance. When they returned unannounced, firing broke out along the Southern battle line. In the confusion, soldiers from the 18th North Carolina fired into the dark woods at what they believed was Federal cavalry, mortally wounding Jackson.
The following day, the 18th North Carolina's battle flag was captured by Federal soldiers when the regiment's color-bearer, Cpl. Owen J. Eakins of New Hanover County, was killed during the Battle of Chancellorsville.
The existence of the flag was unknown to the N.C. Museum of History until 1992, when the museum received a letter from its owner. The postwar history of the flag is unclear, but it likely had several owners before it was acquired by Dr. Tom Walsh in the early 1970s. In 1993 the New Jersey college professor loaned the historic banner to the N.C. Museum of History, where it was conserved and appeared in a previous exhibit. Recently, Walsh offered to donate a partial value of the flag to the museum, and the museum purchased the remaining value this May. It is currently on view in A Call to Arms: North Carolina Military History Gallery.
"We are deeply grateful to Dr. Walsh for his generous contribution and for making the purchase of the flag much more affordable to the museum," emphasized Ken Howard, director of the Division of State History Museums. "The flag is now a permanent part of our collection, which ensures that future generations will see it."
In addition to its battle significance, the 18th North Carolina flag has two unusual features. In late 1862, the five regiments in the North Carolina Branch-Lane Brigade received new battle flags. Unlike other flags issued to North Carolina regiments, these flags not only had white battle honors, instead of the usual blue or black, but the honors were painted on both sides of the flag.
"The acquisition of this important Civil War artifact is one of the greatest highlights of my 30-year career with the museum," states Tom Belton, curator of military history.
The flag acquisition is in anticipation of the Civil War Sesquicentennial Celebration, which will take place from 2011 to 2015. The celebration, sponsored by the Office of Archives and History, N.C. Department of Cultural Resources, will commemorate the war's 150th anniversary and feature events and activities.
Visit the N.C. Museum of History to see this newly acquired artifact linked to a brilliant military strategist, whose death some scholars say turned the tide of the Civil War. Thanks to the generosity of the flag's previous owner, this important historic banner will remain in good hands. Said Walsh, "I'm glad the flag is back in North Carolina, where it belongs."
For more information about the museum, call 919-807-7900 or visit ncmuseumofhistory.org.
Unknown by many the above flag was not the national flag of the Southern States during the War of Seccession. It was the regulation regimental flag of the Army of Northern Virgina. Each regiment carried a similar flag inscribed with the Regimental Number, and battle honours.
The flag was not carried and has not been carried by racist groups after the War. The flag most associated with modern day racist groups was the naval jack, which was also carried by the Confederate Army of Tennesee.
More about Confederate flags another day.
Dieu le Roy!
SYDNEY (AFP) - Protesters planning to hand out condoms to Catholic pilgrims during Pope Benedict XVI's visit to Australia this month face arrest under special new police powers, critics said Tuesday.
Police and emergency service volunteers will be able to stop conduct that "causes annoyance or inconvenience to participants" in World Youth Day events expected to draw hundreds of thousands of young people to Sydney.
"To make something that causes inconvenience to people the basis for a criminal offence is both unnecessary and repugnant," said the president of the New South Wales Bar Association, Anna Katzmann.
The presence of someone wearing the clothes or insignia of another religion could be seen as annoying or inconvenient, as could the presence of protesters, Katzmann said in a statement on behalf of the lawyers' group.
"If I were to wear a T-shirt proclaiming that 'World Youth Day is a waste of public money' and refuse to remove it when an officer of the Rural Fire Service asks me to, I would commit a criminal offence," she said.
"How ridiculous is that?"
A group calling itself the NoToPope Coalition has already announced plans to hand out condoms to pilgrims as part of protests against the pope's opposition to contraception, homosexuality and abortion.
The coalition, which brings together Christians, atheists and gay groups, plans to rally in the city on July 19 and march towards Randwick Racecourse where pilgrims will be gathering for a papal mass the next day.
A Greens member of the state parliament, Lee Rhiannon, said the "draconian" powers were not about managing public safety, noting that police coped each year with a million New Year's Eve revellers in the city.
"This is about shutting down protests and quarantining the pope and visiting Catholics away from messages that World Youth Day authorities don't approve of," she said.
State Premier Morris Iemma defended the police powers.
"People have the right to protest, they can do so, they can do so peacefully and lawfully," he said.
The five-day celebration of Catholic youth, ending with the mass which is expected to draw some 500,000 people, has been billed as a major boost to the economy of Australia's largest city.
But there has been a stream of grumbles over the event's cost, its impact on businesses as well as the inconvenience it will cause the city's residents.
The coalition said it would also protest state funding of almost 110 million dollars (104 million US) for an event staged by the Catholic Church, saying it should be spent on community services instead.
About 26 percent of Australia's 21 million people described themselves as Catholics in the most recent census, while 19 percent said they had no religion
I wish the police in the US had such guts.
Vatican, Jun. 26, 2008 (CWNews.com) - The new director of the Vatican liturgical office has strongly encouraged kneeling to receive Communion, indicating that Pope Benedict XVI (bio - news) prefers the practice.
In an interview with L'Osservatore Romano, Msgr. Guido Marini said that kneeling and receiving the Eucharist on the tongue are practices that express and reinforce reverence for the Blessed Sacrament. He added that it is "urgent to highlight and recover" that sense of reverence.
Since Msgr. Marini assumed his current task as director of papal liturgies, Vatican-watchers have noticed that Pope Benedict has distributed the Eucharist to worshippers who kneel and receive Communion on the tongue. Asked whether these practices would become the norm for papal liturgies, the Vatican's top liturgist said that he thought they would. The Holy Father strongly supports that initiative, he indicated.
Msgr. Marini reminded L'Osservatore Romano that reception of Communion on the tongue remains the norm for the universal Church. Allowing the faithful to receive the Eucharist in their hands is a concession, or indult, "allowed by the Holy See to those bishops' conferences who requested it," he said.
It has always been my norm.
Dieu le Roy!
When I was in the Gulf War, I was unaware that a greater war was brewing in France with pretty much the same outcome for the victors, and the anguish for the defeated.
On 6 December 1990 an event occurred of such earth shaking proportions that could have had a profound impact on the French speaking world. As I write this, I reflect on the next ship berthed to ours a French Frigate and how they were being faced by two enemies, the Iraqis who were lobbing bombs at us and those at home who would change the French language by changing certain aspects. These aspects, irregularities actually, if changed would simplify the language and make it easier to teach. They were, 1. use of the hyphen. 2. plurals of compound words. 3. the circumflex accent. 4. past participle agreement of pronominal verbs. 5. various "anomalies". This was all published in the Le Journal Officiel. It was originally proposed by the Conseil Supérieur de la Langue Français but when it was published the Académie Français, (the keepers of everything holy in the French language)who agreed, the country went into an uproar!
And what! Remove the 'g' from oignon, the curcumflex 'î' from maître! That would be like spelling Boys as Boyz.
This linguistic war was carried on for weeks making headlines in le Figaro and le Monde, alongside of the war news.
Two groups laid siege to the Académie Français, justifying the reason to keep the language just the same as it was. They spoke of the aesthetic effect that these changes would make, as well as the sensual effect of the language. An opera singer chimed in the that the French Language was music, (one does not change a note in a symphony or a word in an opera) and the circumflex was an integral part of the music of French.
In the end the Académie Français did not make any changes. As I have written change does not come the the French language easily. If a word can be said in French it will be said in French, very few foreign words enter the spoken language in France.
The last change to the French language came in 1835, that is not a typo, eighteen thirty five, and what was that change? It was the change of the oi diphthong to the ai, as in français. Can it be any wonder that the Catechism of the Catholic Church was written into French first and then Latin, and then translated into the other languages? It is a living language that rarely changes (as opposed to Latin which is a dead language that never changes.)
In this day of fast food and sound bites, the French still take time to chew their food and speak properly. And a Big Mac is a Royale.
Dieu le Roy!
*"The French language is a woman. And this woman is so beautiful, so proud, so modest, so bold, touching itself, so voluptuous, so chaste, so noble, so familiar, so crazy, so wise, that one loves her with all one's soul, and that one never is tempted to be unfaithful."
Notes: L'Académie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII. Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte (the Académie considers itself to have been suspended, not suppressed, during the revolution).
I used many sources for this blurb, (find that in your Le Petit Larousse!) but especially a book I bought my daughter about 6 months before her studies in France, French or Foe, by Polly Platt, Culture Crossings, London 1994, Le Journal officiel, Paris
The house was built in the 1890's and was the original farmhouse surrounded by fields. They purchased it in 1969.
Mom, Diane made me do this...