Louis XV, known as Louis, Duke of Anjou, was the second son born to Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, after Louis, Duc de Bretagne, who was three years his senior. He was born at Versailles on February 15, 1710, while his great-grandfather Louis XIV was still on the throne. The heir to the throne was Louis XIV's only son, Louis, le Grand Dauphin, who in turn had three sons: Louis' father, who was the eldest, Philippe, Duc d'Anjou (soon to be confirmed as Philip V of Spain), and Charles, Duc de Berry. His mother, Marie-Adélaïde, was a very lively woman of whom the king was very fond, and the young couple, deeply in love with each other (quite an unusual fact at the court in Versailles), had rejuvenated the court of the old king and become the centre of attraction in Versailles. This, coupled with the existence of six male heirs (one son, three grandsons, and two great-grandsons from his oldest grandson), made the prospects of the House of Bourbon seem very bright. More here
He is viewed harshly by many historians based on his affairs with Mdme de Pompadour, and du Barry, the disasterous wars of the early 18th century, and the debt he left for his grandson Louis-August, the future Louis XVI. It is unfortunate that today few remember the name of his queen the saintly Maria Leszczyńska or his childrens names, but can remember both his mistresses.
Yesterday as I attended a Eucharist Holy Hour, the deacon's homily centered on rationalism. As I drove home I pondered the question over and over in my mind. I realized that the axiom of "Vote for whomever comes closest to my way of thinking and beliefs" was a form of insiduous rationalization. How close is close?
My qualification questions for an elected official are;
1) Is the person a Catholic in good standing?
2) Does this person lead a life which is free from scandal or the appearance of scandal?
3) Is the person ashamed of his faith; does this person make statements that infer that his faith will not stand in the way of how he make decisions?
4) Is this person capable to make a sound moral decision based on the teaching of the Church.
5) Does this person respect human life?
6) What is this person's understanding of justice and peace?
So the question remains, can we vote in November? I submit that it is not possible as a Catholic in good consience vote. Each candidate misses the mark of my pesonnal list by at least two and some more of what I consider qualifications.
A moral action is one from which no evil may be derived. Therefore voting is an immoral action. An immoral action is a sin be cause we know it is evil. We can not claim invincible ignorance.
It does not matter how I feel personally about a candidate, all four candidates defer to the "Will of the people". No man can serve two masters. For either he will hate the one, and love the other: or he will sustain the one, and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon. Matt: 6.-24 There is not one of these who would serve God first. It is by the action of the person by which his faith is proclaimed. It is in serving God that we serve men.
I would like to wish a very Happy Valentines Day to my wife of 24 years, Suzanne...
...To my daughters, Michelle-Renee', and Geneviève, Princesses both.
...To my sons, Daniel, and Kenneth.
...To my Daughter-in-Law, Trisha.
...To my Son-in-Law, David.
...To all 7 of my grandchildren.
...And to the world...
..."May The LORD bless you and keep you; May The LORD make His face shine upon you,And be gracious to you;May The LORD lift up His countenance upon you, And give you peace." Amen
More more thing, Of course the Archbishop was not informed in advance. If he had the University may have had protests by the faithful, and that would not do. Mrs Clinton feels herself to be the heir apparent, and therefore anything other than goddess worshipping, syncopathic adulation would be inappropriate. Shame on St Marys!
This is the EMAIL Address to St Mary's Campus Ministry. firstname.lastname@example.org Why did they not speak up?
Archbishop Censures Clinton Stop at Catholic University
Says Senator's Record Not Consistent With Church Teaching
SAN ANTONIO, Texas, FEB. 13, 2008 (Zenit.org).- The archbishop of San Antonio said he was "surprised" to hear that a local Catholic university will be the spot for a campaign rally for Senator Hilary Clinton, whose records he says are not consistent with Church teaching.
Archbishop José Gomez said this today in a press statement ahead of Clinton's scheduled campaign rally at St. Mary's University this evening. Clinton, a longtime supporter of abortion rights, is holding the event as part of her bid for the White House.
In an official message from the communications office of the archdiocese, Archbishop Gomez said, "I was surprised to learn of Senator Hillary Clinton’s appearance at St. Mary’s University. I was neither advised nor consulted by the university before the decision was made to have Senator Clinton speak at the university."
The prelate affirmed: "Catholic institutions are obliged to teach and promote Catholic values in all instances. This is especially important when people look to our Catholic universities and colleges to provide leadership and clarity to the often complicated and conflicting political discourse.
"It is clear that the records of Senator Clinton and some of the other candidates for president on important life issues are not consistent with the teaching of the Catholic Church."
In the message that drew the support of Bishop Patrick Zurek of Amarillo and Bishop Thomas Flanagan, retired auxiliary bishop of San Antonio, Archbishop Gomez stated clearly, "It is not my intention to tell people for whom to vote."
"However," he continued, "I encourage Catholics to understand the teachings of the Church on the broad spectrum of public issues that are of great concern today."
The 56-year-old archbishop recalled a 2004 document from the U.S. episcopal conference that "affirmed that when dealing with political candidates and public office holders, 'The Catholic community and Catholic institutions should not honor those who act in defiance of our fundamental moral principles. They should not be given awards, honors or platforms which would suggest support for their actions.'"
Archbishop Gomez acknowledged that a disclaimer from St. Mary's said the institution "as a Catholic tax-exempt university," does not "endorse political candidates or their positions on issues and acknowledges the fundamental differences between those of the presidential candidates and the Catholic Church."
But the San Antonio archbishop affirmed, "Our Catholic institutions must promote the clear understanding of our deep moral convictions on an issue like abortion, an act that the Church calls 'an unspeakable crime' and a non-negotiable issue."
(1) as opposed to the Roman Catholic Church in America
Our Holy Father raises the hackles of the modernist left! Long live Pope Benedict XVI!!
Jovan-Marya Weismiller, T.O.Carm.
Paolo Flores d'Arcais denounces the crusade of Benedict XVI
(Emphasis is mine)
The Italian philosopher Paolo Flores d'Arcais, editor in chief of MicroMega, deplores the speech delivered by Pope Benedict XVI in his latest encyclical.
"...The crusade goes on. The encyclical entitled 'Spe Salvi' and sent out by Benedict XVI last November 30th, ratifies and radicalises the anathema of a Catholic Church set against a modernity guilty of disobeying God and consequently hurling itself into desperate nihilism. All has been said now. Even democracy is a lie if mankind's sovereignty is not subordinate to the imperative of 'natural law', which is to say, if freedom doesn't coincide with Church ukases(1), the only authorised interpreter of this natural law and the will of God. Democracy has to be Christian, if not it will be inhuman. The mystery has finally been solved. ... Evil comes from the enlightenment, the project that strives for mankind's autonomy..."
(1) An authoritative order or decree; an edict.
Although he probably didn't mean it to come out this way philosoph has made my point. Democracy is a perversion and is by it's nature opposed to the Church and Christianity.
Vive le Roy!
Please see, Paragraphs, 19-21, Spe Salvi
Absolutely nothing...because September 3 through 13, 1752 did not exist by Royal decree. Britain and the British Empire (including the eastern part of what is now the United States) adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752 in accordance with the New Style Act of 1750 by which time it was necessary to correct the old Julian Calendar by 11 days. Wednesday, September 2, 1752 was followed by Thursday, September 14,1752.
And as in the year 1999 with it's fear of the disruption of society, it was also predidcted that the date change would disrupt the commerce and society of Britain and the Empire for centuries.
Hmmm, do you think that was what happened?
One effect was to move Washingtons birthday from February 11 to February 22.
Louis-Antoine, Duc d'Angoulême
Louis-Antoine, the Duc d'Angoulême was the nephew of Louis XVI, being the oldest son of the Comte d'Artois. The Comtesse d'Artois, mother of Louis-Antoine, gave him over to the servants to raise and he had many health problems. He was painfully shy, awkward, unattractive, unsocialized, and impotent - all the qualities usually and unfairly attributed to his uncle Louis XVI. He was betrothed as a child to his first cousin Madame Royale, Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte de France... more...
Thanks and a tip of the beret to Elena-Maria Vidal,
He attended the seminary at Troyes but is so mediocre in his studies that he gives up the idea of a religious life.
He leaves for Paris, and finds a position with a lawyer. He attends the faculty of Reims where he buys a law degree as it was possible to do under the Ancient Regime.
He becomes a member of the bar in Paris, but he rarely offers a plea at court, preferring to frequent cafes with his many friends. He is married to Antoinette Gabrielle Charpentier daughter of one of a café owner and is named to the Law Counsel of the king in 1787.
He does not play a role in the rebellion prior to August 10, 1792, although he has participated in the meetings of the Cordeliers Club and becomes friends of Camille DesMoulins, and Jean Paul Marat who call for the club to take up arms. He becomes president of the Cordeliers, due in part to his oratorical skills, he continued in popularity.
During the crisis of Varennes in June 1791 he skillfully supports the Jacobin club’s idea of a regency of Phillip d’Egalitie, cousin to the King and Grandmaster of the Freemasons in Paris. Allying himself to the Jacobins he demands the replacement of Louis XVI, in opposition the Cordeleiers who demand his abdication. During a petition drive seeking the removal of King Louis XVI on the Champ de Mars July 17, 1791 assassins fire into the crowd which causes the national guards under La Fayette to open fire on the crowd. Danton leaves and goes to England for safety.
Upon the return to Paris in November 1791, he is elected to be the substitute of the prosecutor for the city of Paris. The National Constituent Assembly having completed its work in September 1791. Danton was not elected to its successor, the short-lived Legislative Assembly, and his party was only able to procure for him a subordinate post in the Paris Commune.
In April 1792, the Girondist government—still functioning as a constitutional monarchy—declared war against Austria. A country in turmoil from the immense civil and political changes of the past two years now faced war with an enemy on its eastern frontier. Parisian distrust for the court turned to open insurrection. On August 10, 1792, the popular forces marched on the Tuileries; the king and queen took refuge with the Legislative Assembly. Danton's role in this uprising is unclear. He may have been at its head; this view is supported because on the morning after the effective fall of the monarchy, Danton who favors the revolutionary Parisians and with their connivance he becomes the Minister of Justice.
This sudden rise from the subordinate office which he held in the commune is a demonstration of his power within the insurrectionary party. In September 1792, when the Austrians threaten invasion he uppers his famous, “L’Audace, L’Audace, toujours L’Audace,” (“Audacity, again audacity, always audacity!”)
In the provisional executive government that was formed between the king's dethronement and the opening of the National Assembly, Danton allied himself with Jean Marie Roland and other Girondists. The alarming successes of the Austrians and the surrender of the fortress of Verdun caused panic in the capital; over a thousand prisoners were murdered. The first attack occurred when twenty-four non-juring priests being transported to the prison of L'Abbaye, were attacked by a mob that quickly killed them all as they were trying to escape into the prison, then mutilated the bodies, "with circumstances of barbarity too shocking to describe" according to the British diplomatic dispatch. On September 3 and September 4, crowds broke into other Paris prisons, where they murdered the prisoners, who some feared were counter-revolutionaries who would aid the invading Prussians. Danton was accused of directing this slaughter, but investigation has failed to prove this.
In the convention he found himself side by side with Marat, Robespierre, DesMoulins and Phélippeaux, close friends and partisans. Danton saw radical Paris as the only force to which the National Convention could look in resisting Austria and its allies on the north-east frontier, and the reactionaries in the interior. "Paris," he said, "is the natural and constituted center of free France. It is the center of light. When Paris shall perish there will no longer be a republic."
Danton voted for the death of Louis XVI, and he helped creat the revolutionary tribunal which would become the instument of the terror. Danton became one of the original members of the Committee of Public Safety on April 6, 1793. He travelled as a consiquence of his duties and went to Belguim to infuse energy in the republican armies.
The gap between the Girondists and the Jacobins widened ever farther and danton was unable to bridge the difificulties between the two. The fury of the Girond was unceasing, the attacks upon Danton and the mountain continued unabatted. The Grondists saw him as the personification of the fury of the revolutionalry spirit.
During the spring of 1793 Danton made up his mind that the Girondist mst be politacally supressed. The convention had become factionary and wasted much time in vindicitiveness and political revenge. (Seemingly a hallmark of democracy.) The country still in crisis, General Dumoriez deserted to the enemy for fear of the guillotine after suffering defeat at Valmy and Jemappes, and to the west the Vendee has risen up in rebellion to the levee’ en masse, the installation of juring priests and the supression of the true faith. Danton found himself in the fight of his life for his life as the Girondists clamoured for his head. This was one struggle they would lose.
Danton remained slippery as an eel. Again there is no proof that he engineered the insurrection of May 31, through June 2, 1793, which expunged the convention and proscribed the Girondists. At any rate, he certainly acquiesced in the violence of the commune, and he publicly gloried in the expulsion of the men who stood obstinately in the way of a vigorous and concentrated exertion of national power.
The position of the Mountain had completely changed. In the Constituent Assembly its members had been a mere 30 out of the 578 of the third estate. In the Legislative Assembly they had not been numerous, and none of their chiefs held a seat. In the first nine months of the Convention they were struggling for their very lives against the Girondists. In June 1793, for the first time, they found themselves in possession of absolute power. Men who had for many months been "nourished on the ideas and stirred to the methods of opposition" suddenly had the responsibility of government. Actual power was in the hands of the two Committees, Public Safety and the Committee of General Security. Danton has nine months to live.
When discussing the revolution many people feel a certain emapthy for Danton. It comes from the modern readers republican upbringing as Danton is most oftern portrayed as a man of the people, however he was a ruthless politician who as we have seen was responsible for all and resonsible for nothing. That characteristic is what led to his downfall.
Immediately after the fall of the Girondists he threw himself into the task of setting up a strong central authority, and controlling the forces of anarchy in Paris. He proposed that dictatorial power be granted to the Committee of Public Safety. It is here I pause to reflect that this supposed Revolution was started in order to destroy a supposed Tyrant and instead had devolved to the point of installing a dictatorship. He was cafeful not to be on this committee lest he be placed under some personal suspicion. He set himself up as a powerful supporter of government from without.
The commune of Paris composed of animals like Hébert and Chaumette. They had no concern for the near-term restoration of any sort of political order. These enragés wished to push destruction to limits which even the most ardent sympathizers with the Revolution condemn now, and which Danton condemned then, as extravagant and senseless. Thus the Terror.
The Reign of Terror was not a policy that could be easily transformed. Indeed, it would eventually end with the Thermidorian Reaction when the Convention would rise against the Committee, execute its leaders, and place power in the hands of new men with a new policy. It is on one of his trips to Belgium that the wife of Danton, Gabrielle died. Four months after the death of his first wife, Louise Gély becomes his wife, a delicate girl of sixteen years from a bourgeois family with religious principles. The family was initially against this union. Sherequired that the marriage be blessed by a nonjuring priest after a confession. The marriage ceremony was celebrated in a garret away from prying eyes. Dr Warren H. Carroll, in his book the “Guillotine and the Cross”, marks this as the metanoia in the life of Danton and the salvation of his soul.
When the Jacobin Club was "purified" in the winter, Danton's name would have been struck out as a moderate if Robespierre had not defended him. The committees deliberated on his arrest soon afterwards, and again Robespierre resisted the proposal. Yet if he had been warned of the lightning that was thus playing round his head, Danton did not move. Either he felt himself powerless, or he rashly despised his enemies. Or it may have been that he felt this was the moment of the expiation of his sins.
On March 30, Danton, Desmoulins and others of the indulgent party were suddenly arrested. Danton displayed such vehemence before the revolutionary tribunal that his enemies feared he would gain the crowd's favour. The Convention, assented to a proposal made by Saint-Just that, if a prisoner showed want of respect for justice, the tribunal might pronounce sentence without further delay. Danton was at once condemned, and led, in company with fourteen others, including Desmoulins, to the guillotine. "I leave it all in a frightful welter," he said; "not a man of them has an idea of government. Robespierre will follow me; he is dragged down by me. Ah, better be a poor fisherman than meddle with the government of men!" Danton's last words were addressed to his executioner. He said to him "Don't forget to show my head to the people. It's well worth seeing."
Events went as Danton foresaw. The committees presently came to quarrel with the pretensions of Robespierre. Three months after Danton, Robespierre fell. His assent to the execution of Danton had deprived him of the single great force that might have supported him against the committee.
Vive le Roy!
“…But, nevertheless, the generation that carried on the war has been set apart by its experience. Through our great good fortune, in our youth our hearts were touched with fire. It was given to us to learn at the outset that life is a profound and passionate thing. While we are permitted to scorn nothing but indifference, and do not pretend to undervalue the worldly rewards of ambition, we have seen with our own eyes, beyond and above the gold fields, the snowy heights of honor, and it is for us to bear the report to those who come after us. But, above all, we have learned that whether a man accepts from Fortune her spade, and will look downward and dig, or from Aspiration her axe and cord, and will scale the ice, the one and only success which it is his to command is to bring to his work a mighty heart.”
Oliver Wendell Holmes 1884
More than 25 bishops and 800 priests were in attendance at the service celebrated by the Bishop of Tarbes and Lourdes, Jacques Perrier and the Archbishop of Marseille Bernard Panafieu.
The mass took place in a field opposite the Massabielle shrine where the mother of Jesus Christ is said to have first appeared in a vision to Bernadette Soubirous on February 11, 1858.
Simultaneously at the Vatican in Rome a rib belonging to Soubirous was ceremoniously conveyed to Saint Peter's Basilica to mark the anniversary.
The relic was conveyed in solemn procession up the main thoroughfare between Rome's Tiber River and Saint Peter's Basilica, escorted by about 15 Italian police mounted on white horses.
Soubirous became a nun after her visions, and was canonised by the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Bernadette in 1933.
The town of Lourdes in southwestern France is one of the main pilgrimage sites for the Church, attracting millions of believers from around the world who venerate the Virgin.
Many who are suffering make the trip in hope of being cured by the supposedly miraculous waters of a spring at the site of the visions.
Accompanied by a 30-member choir, readings for the mass were given in several languages, including English, Spanish, German, Italian, Portuguese and Polish.
"Coming here is to have one's belief replenished, in a world of mistrust, hostility and indifference," said Perrier in his homily to the pilgrims.
"Lourdes is also perhaps like a school for prayer -- a place where it is easy, even natural, to pray because one senses it is expected," he said.
After Perrier finished mass, bells from all the churches in Lourdes rang out in unison. A torchlight procession in honour of the Virgin Mary was scheduled for the evening.
The year-long celebrations began on December 8, 2007 and will run through until December 8, 2008. They commemorate a total of 18 visions believed to have been seen by Soubirous between February and July of 1858.
For the Catholic Church, Soubirous' visions confirmed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception -- proclaimed four years later by Pope Pius IX -- which declares that Mary was "without sin" when Jesus Christ was conceived.
Pope Benedict XVI is expected to take a pilgrimage to Lourdes sometime in September.
In December, the Vatican announced the pope would grant indulgences for a limited time to pilgrims who visit Lourdes for the 150th anniversary.
In the Catholic Church, indulgences are remittances of suffering for sins. In order to go to heaven, it is believed one must 'repair' the harm committed on earth before death.
Soubirous herself died in 1879, aged 35, and is buried at Nevers, central France.
Reading through a little devotional book on the Guardian Angels, published by TAN, I came across this cracking story illustrating the importance of reverence and attention in Church.
"It is related of St Catherine of Siena, who was also favoured with the visible presence of her Guardian Angel, that once while praying in the church she turned her head slightly to gratify her curiosity. Her Guardian Angel gave her so severe a look for her disrespect in the presence of the Most Holy that for several days St Catherine was inconsolable and performed severe penance in atonement."
Thanks and a tip of the beret to Fr Tim Finigan who probably never heard of me or my blog, merci.