A Short Biography of Saint Joan of Arc
« En nom Dieu, les hommes d'armes batailleront et Dieu leur donnera la victoire. »
"In the name of God the men (at arms) will fight, and God will provide the victory"
Jehanne à Poitiers, mars 1429 (Joan at Poitiers, March 1429)
A Short Biography of Saint Joan of Arc
Many us were inspired by the CBS film on Joan of Arc with Lee Lee Sobieski. Though in my mind it is the best version of the life of Joan many of the fact were distorted or left out to keep the plot going along and making a dramatic film. A good point with this actress is that she was just about the right age which of course the Ingrid Bergman film couldnt quite pull off. Additionally, in the Bergman film, the script was parallel to the book by Mark Twain and the play by Bernard Shaw. The Lee Lee version was identifiably taken from her trial statements and the rehabilitation.
My friend Virginia Frohlick has placed on her site this short biography. I add it to whet the appitite, because, this is just a small portion of the most complete English language site dealing with the Maid. Virginia is the expert on Joan. The link above will transport you to her site.
Saint Joan was born on January 6, 1412, in the village of Domremy to Jacques and Isabelle d'Arc. Joan was the youngest of their five children. While growing up among the fields and pastures of her village, she was called Jeannette but when she entered into her mission, her name was changed to Jeanne, la Pucelle, or Joan, the Maid.
As a child she was taught domestic skills as well as her religion by her mother. Joan would later say, "As for spinning and sewing, I fear no woman in Rouen." And again, "It was my mother alone who taught me the 'Our Father' and 'Hail Mary' and the 'Creed;' and from none other was I taught my faith."
From her earliest of years Joan was known for her obedience to her parents, religious fervor, goodness, unselfish generosity and kindness toward her neighbors. Simonin Munier, one of Joan's childhood friends, tells how Joan had nursed him back to health when he was sick. Some of her playmates teased her for being 'too pious.' Others remembered how she would give up her bed to the homeless stranger who came to her father's door asking for shelter.
Joan was 'like all the others' in her village until her thirteenth year. "When I was about thirteen, I received revelation from Our Lord by a voice which told me to be good and attend church often and that God would help me." She stated that her 'Voices' were Saint Michael the Archangel, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. At first her 'Voices' came to her two or three times a week but as the time for her mission drew near (five years later), they visited her daily telling her to 'Go into France' to raise the siege of Orleans, conduct the Dauphin Charles to Reims for his crowning and to drive the English from the land.
Joan went to the neighboring town of Vaucouleurs, which means Valley of many colors. There she spoke to the loyal French governor by the name of Sir Robert de Baudricourt. After many rejections he finally agreed to send her to the Dauphin who at the time was living at the castle of Chinon.
On the evening of February 23, 1429, she began her mission for God. In the company of six men, she rode through the Gate of France on her way to Chinon. Joan reached this town on March 6th, but was not received by the Dauphin, Charles, until the evening of March 9th.
After being accepted and approved by a Church council headed by the Archbishop of Reims, Joan was allowed to lead the Dauphin's army. This part of her career was meteoric. She entered Orleans on the evening of April 29th and by May 8th the city had been freed. The Loire campaign started on June 9th and by June 19th the English were driven out of the Loire valley. The march to Reims started on June 29th and by July 17th Charles was crowned King of France in the cathedral of Reims.
From this time on, for reasons know only to King Charles, the king no longer valued Joan's advice and guidance. She had always told him that God had given her 'a year and a little longer' to accomplish His will but the king seemed to take no notice of it. For almost a year he wasted what time remained to Joan, until in frustration, she left the court. Her last campaign lasted from the middle of March until her capture at the town of Compiegne on May 23rd, 1430. Her 'year and a little longer' was over.
Abandoned by her king and friends, she started her year of captivity. As a prisoner of the Burgundians she was treated fairly but that all changed when on November 21st, 1430, she was handed over the English. How she survived their harsh treatment of her is a miracle in itself.
The English not only wanted to kill Joan but they also wanted to discredit King Charles as a false king by having Joan condemned by the Church as a witch and a heretic. To obtain this goal the English used those Church authorities whom they knew to be favorable to them and the staunchest of these was Bishop Cauchon.
Joan's trial of condemnation lasted from February 21st until May 23rd. She was finally burnt at the stake in Rouen's market square on May 30th, 1431.
Twenty-five years later the findings of Joan's first trial were overturned and declared 'null and void' by another Church court, who this time was favorable to King Charles. It was not until 1920 that the Church of Rome officially declared Joan to be a saint. Her feast day is celebrated on May 30th.
Note of Caution, Many writers have distorted the Story of this Saint, they have added calumny to her memory. You may find them on the net I will not place them here. I recommend all of these sites, as well as the books and CD rom. I recommend the Lee Lee version of the film and do not recommend "The Messenger" with Mila Jojovich, it is garbage. Here is a link to a silent film called the "Passion of Joan of Arc" from 1928...
Joan of Arc's Companions in Arms, English, French
The 'Companions' of Jeanne d'Arc and Others, short biographies
SteJeannedArc.net entirely in in French only
Maison de Jeanne d'Arc in French only
Allen Williamson's site on the maid
Joan of Arc: Her Story at Amazon.com
Joan of Arc by Maurice Boutet de Monvel, the narritive is a bit slanted and written for the youth of France but the illustrations are superb
CD Rom: this is a great resource, find it here
Maid of Heaven, The story of Joan of Arc. here...
My Favorite quotes of the Maid,
"Je me attens a Dieu, mon createur, de tout; je layme de tout mon cuer..."
"Au France et au Roi, Mon ambition sera à servir. "...
Vive le Roi!