In order to correctly discuss this period we must have some background. On the 14th of October 1066 the Battle of Hastings ended forever the Anglo-Saxon rule of the island which would be called England. William the Bastard (not yet given the sobriquet the conqueror) defeated Harold. This event is so significant, it completely changed the course of English and European history. It was the very last time that England would ever be invaded or conquered. William was the Duke of Normandy, a vassal of the King of France. As Duke of Normandy he was required to swear fealty to the King of France, an unbearable and humiliating chore for the William and his successors who saw themselves as equals (or better) to the French Capitian Monarchs. The French monarchs viewed William as a potential threat occupying lands which could threaten their own kingdom, right on their door.
For the immediate time William and his successors were more involved in consolidating their hold on England through a period of conquest, and then of civil wars. The Anglo-Normans were replaced by the Angevins whose hold on England was secure, and they also acquired additional lands in western France, Maine, Potiou, Anjou, Touraine, Gascony, Saintonge, and Aquitaine. By this time their holdings included more territory than the French King yet still they continued to be vassals of the French King. This was, of course, a cause for continual friction. (Please note that during this time the Second, Third and part of the Fourth Cruasdes were being called. This acted as somewhat of a relief mechanism for unruly military men.) There were, however, three successive wars in which the French regained some of the lands. These were the Conquest of Normandy (1214), the Saintonge War (1242), and the War of Saint-Sardos (1324). These conflicts had the effect of loosening the grip of the Agevins on France but also of creating an atmosphere for the desire for revenge and the regaining of the ancestral homeland. At this period the English noble classes still spoke French exclusively and the memories of their great-grandparents still existed.
In 1328 the Capitian dynasty ended with the death of Charles IV. His father Philip IV had been the Grand-son ofKing St. Louis IX. Philip IV ( here is the name change to the house of de Valois) had 3 sons, Louis (X), Philip (V), and Charles (IV) and one daughter Isabella (who will figure prominently soon). When Philip IV died in 1314 his eldest son Louis died in 1316, without male issue, his brother Philip V died in 1322, and the third son Charles IV became the King. Charles IV went to War with Edward II of England over Gascony in 1324, and after a brief campaign won all of Gascony and Aquitaine except for a small strip of land bordering Bordeaux.
The English did not care for this one bit. The loss infuriated the English nobles who viewed the loss of lands as mismanagement. In 1327 Edward was assassinated and his wife Isabella the daughter of the French king Philip IV and sister of the current French King Charles IV de facto ruled England for her son Edward III
As has been a feature in medieval warfare much time was spent in negotiation between ountries. Especially France and England, many of whose nobles held lands in both France and England. It was important for the nobles to at once been seen as supporting their lieg and also to look after their own interests, in lands and income. This "fence sitting" will have a great bearing on the alliances struck up and changed during the Hundred Years war.
A word about the languages. When one speaks of the French in the context of the Hundred Years War, it is only by the use of a more of less common language that they can be grouped. To most of those who lived during the period in what would become France at a later date, France was only the territory surrounding Paris, Capital of the Valois. One might be Champagnois, Normandois, Poitevin, Breton etc. and that is how they thought of themselves. Most of the provences were duchies whose nobles held their lands in fief from the King to whom they would pay homage, including monies and were required, but did not always come, to the aid of the King in times of war. Much of the language was French but there were and are still today patois, dialects, much like the French spoken in France today compared with Quebecois French, (my daughter never fails to comment on my quaint Quebecois accent), or Occitan spoken then and still in Provence, Langudoc, and parts of northern Italy. Again remember that until just at the end of the War both sides spoke French in daily use.
Thus at the death of Charles IV the stage was set for the opening actions of the Hundred Years War. It would be Valois for France versus the Plantagenet for England.
Below is the family tree which will introduce the next part.
Entered into Heaven this date in 1622.
Feast: January 24
Born in France in 1567, Francis was a patient man. He knew for thirteen years that he had a vocation to the priesthood before he mentioned it to his family. When his father said that he wanted Francis to be a soldier and sent him to Paris to study, Francis said nothing. Then when he went to Padua to get a doctorate in law, he still kept quiet, but he studied theology and practiced mental prayer while getting into swordfights and going to parties. Even when his bishop told him if he wanted to be a priest that he thought that he would have a miter waiting for him someday, Francis uttered not a word. Why did Francis wait so long? Throughout his life he waited for God's will to be clear. He never wanted to push his wishes on God, to the point where most of us would have been afraid that God would give up! more
The most celebrated saint of the Northern kingdoms, born about 1303; died 23 July, 1373.
She was the daughter of Birger Persson, governor and provincial judge (Lagman) of Uppland, and of Ingeborg Bengtsdotter. Her father was one of the wealthiest landholders of the country, and, like her mother, distinguished by deep piety. St. Ingrid, whose death had occurred about twenty years before Bridget's birth, was a near relative of the family. Birger's daughter received a careful religious training, and from her seventh year showed signs of extraordinary religious impressions and illuminations. To her education, and particularly to the influence of an aunt who took the place of Bridget's mother after the latter's death (c. 1315), she owed that unswerving strength of will which later distinguished her.
In 1316, at the age of thirteen, she was united in marriage to Ulf Gudmarsson, who was then eighteen. She acquired great influence over her noble and pious husband, and the happy marriage was blessed with eight children, among them St. Catherine of Sweden. The saintly life and the great charity of Bridget soon made her name known far and wide. She was acquainted with several learned and pious theologians, among them Nicolaus Hermanni, later Bishop of Linköping, Matthias, canon of Linköping, her confessor, Peter, Prior of Alvastrâ, and Peter Magister, her confessor after Matthias. She was later at the court of King Magnus Eriksson, over whom she gradually acquired great influence. Early in the forties (1341-43) in company with her husband she made a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostella. On the return journey her husband was stricken with an attack of illness, but recovered sufficiently to finish the journey. Shortly afterwards, however, he died (1344) in the Cistercian monastery of Alvastrâ in East Gothland.
Bridget now devoted herself entirely to practices of religion and asceticism, and to religious undertakings. The visions which she believed herself to have had from her early childhood now became more frequent and definite. She believed that Christ Himself appeared to her, and she wrote down the revelations she then received, which were in great repute during the Middle Ages. They were translated into Latin by Matthias Magister and Prior Peter.
St. Birgitta now founded a new religious congregation, the Brigittines, or Order of St. Saviour, whose chief monastery, at Vadstena, was richly endowed by King Magnus and his queen (1346). To obtain confirmation for her institute, and at the same time to seek a larger sphere of activity for her mission, which was the moral uplifting of the period, she journeyed to Rome in 1349, and remained there until her death, except while absent on pilgrimages, among them one to the Holy Land in 1373. In August, 1370, Pope Urban V confirmed the Rule of her congregation. Bridget made earnest representations to Pope Urban, urging the removal of the Holy See from Avignon back to Rome. She accomplished the greatest good in Rome, however, by her pious and charitable life, and her earnest admonitions to others to adopt a better life, following out the excellent precedents she had set in her native land. The year following her death her remains were conveyed to the monastery at Vadstena. She was canonized, 7 October, 1391, by Boniface IX.
The Fifteen Promises revealed by Our Lord to Saint Birgitta of Sweden, and the Fifteen Prayers revealed by Our Lord to Saint Birgitta of Sweden
..."I received 5480 blows on My Body. If you wish to honor them in some way, say 15 Our Fathers and 15 Hail Marys with the following Prayers (which He taught her) for a whole year. When the year is up, you will have honored each one of My Wounds." Our Lord made the following promises to anyone who recited the 15 St. Birgitta Prayers every day for a whole year: more, and here...
A wealth of information may be found here.
A page of the Revelation Manuscript(Palermo Italia,(Sicilia)
Birgitta of Sweden, Revelationes, Autograph Manuscript, Royal Library, Stockholm, Sweden.
Codex Falkenberghianus, written in hand of Johannes Johannis Kalmarnensis
To see the two Lund University manuscripts of Birgitta's Revelationes: http://laurentius.lub.lu.se/
I became interested in this Holy Woman after an email came to me from http://saintbridget.freewebpage.org/.I did not seek this out. I was on the verge of sending it to the dustbin when I read it. Intriged I sent them a letter asking "How they got my address, if they minded if I placed a link to them, and if they would pray for me?" In honour of their commitment I placed this article in my blog.
Please visit the link in my most visited sites.
Pope Proclaims Three New Patrons of Europe Vatican City - 1 October 1999
Celebration for Saint Bridget of Sweden as Patron of Europe Rome, Italy - 3 October 1999
Pope John Paul II - Homily - 13 November 1999
NOTE: She is also referred to as St. Brigid of Sweden but I have chosen to keep to the original.
Saint Brigitta, Pray for Us.
Vivat Christus Rex!
Far from a tyrannical rule, King Louis XVI's reign was one of tolerance, and a desire to help his people. Undermined by calumnious detractors, (many of whom were family members,) who were concerned for their own position, property and wealth the he still strove for the betterment of his subjects. He was a just man, a forerunner of womens rights and of justice. He abolished certain taxes. He made injustices right. If he could have continued in the course of his benevolent reign the world might well have been different.
This is of course mostly forgotten by historians. Only the words of one of a tyrant of the revolution, nay the prophet of the Antichrist “It is with regret that I pronounce the fatal truth: Louis ought to perish rather than a hundred thousand virtuous citizens; Louis must die that the country may live" are remembered. Why is that?
Louis XVI decided to relieve his people of the "Right of Joyous Advent", a tax at every change of reign.
Louis XVI created the corps of the firemen.
Louis XVI permitted women the attainment of Masters in any profession.
Louis XVI authorized the installation of a water pump to supply Paris with water to fight fires in Paris.
Louis XVI created a Mount-of-Piety to Paris to discourage usury and to come to the aid of the poor people.
Louis XVI allowed the crews of its warships the percentage (a third) of the prize money value of the captured warships that was reserved for him during war time.
Louis XVI decided to help the abbot of the Epée in his work for the education of the "deaf-mutes without fortune" he taught a sign language of his own invention. The King gave him a pension of 6000 livres of his own budget, against the archdiocese opinion that suspected this man of Jansenism. (heresy, quietism)
Louis XVI endowed the school of Valentin Hauÿ for the blind.
Louis XVI gave fishing rights the English fishermen and obtained the reciprocity for the French fishermen.
Louis XVI gave the right to married women and to minors access their inheritance and pensions without asking the authorization of their husband or guardian.
Louis XVI coined the phrase "Social Justice".
Louis XVI ordered military hospitals to treat the wounded enemies "as subjects of the King", 90 years before the first Geneva convention.
Louis XVI decided to abolish the serfdom in the royal domain and the right that allowed the lords to make serfs follow or left their domains.
Louis XVI ordered the abolition of torture.
Louis XVI did paid infirmary expenses to insure the prisons were "clear and well-ventilated" .
Louis XVI eliminated Maison du Roi tax (a third).
Louis XVI financed all the installations of the hôtel-dieu for that every sick individual have his own clean bed. (Not done for Louis-Charles, LouisXVII)
Louis XVI was founded a hospital for the children with contagious diseases, today called the Hospital of the Sick Children.
Louis XVI created the Museum des Sciences et Techniques, the future Center of National Arts and Trades.
Louis XVI was founded the School of the Mines.
Louis XVI financed on its own the brothers Montgolfier (pioneers of aviation)
Louis XVI financed equally the experiences of Jouffroy of Abbans for the use of steam for sailing ships.
Louis XVI exempted the Jews of the body toll and of humiliation. He had synagogues constructed in Nancy and Lunéville, and permit to the Jews to have access to all the masteries in the Parliament of Nancy.
Louis XVI granted seven million to the victims of the cold in the winter.
Louis XVI granted retirement pensions to all those that exercised a maritime profession.
Louis XVI asked for a annual balance of the commerce budget.
Louis XVI created the property rights (copyrights) of authors and music composers.
Louis XVI granted the right of citizenship to the protestants.
Louis XVI ended the right to the hold prisoners in preventive custody before their indictment, and before their trial. He decided to grant them a compensation as well as a right of announcement if their innocence was shown at the time of their trial. (not afforded to his person or his family)
Louis XVI granted the first right of women to vote within the framework of the election of the representatives of the Assembly of the General States.
Louis XVI created the School of music and of dance of the Opera of Paris, and the Museum of the Louvre.
Inspiré de l'ouvrage "Louis XVI a la parole" par Paul et Pierrette Girault de Coursac, Edition l'O.E.I.L.
Today Robespierre's other words are forgotten, "The secret of freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret of tyranny is in keeping them ignorant."
Vive Le Roi!
Richard Sieur de Brantigny
The Bourbons at Home- A Pictorial Essay
Here are some "domestic" scenes of the Bourbon dynasty over the years.
The Royal family in 1781 at the birth of the Dauphin Louis-Joseph. From left to right, the three Artois children, the Comtesse d'Artois, Artois, Louis XVI, Madame Royale, the Dauphin on Marie-Antoinette's lap, Madame Elisabeth, the Provences. Provence looks none too happy and his wife Madame was quite put out by the baby's birth. As Nesta Webster says in Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette before the Revolution:
On Christmas Day, 800 took place the principal event in the life of Charles. During the pontifical Mass celebrated by the pope, as the king knelt in prayer before the high altar beneath which lay the bodies of Sts. Peter and Paul, the pope approached him, placed upon his head the imperial crown, did him formal reverence after the ancient manner, saluted him as Emperor and Augustus and anointed him, while the Romans present burst out with the acclamation, thrice repeated: "To Carolus Augustus crowned by God, mighty and pacific emperor, be life and victory" It is certain that Charles constantly attributed his imperial dignity to an act of God, made known of course through the agency of the Vicar of Christ.
Madame Louise of France
Madame Louise of France, also known as Blessed Thérèse of Saint Augustine was the youngest daughter of King Louis XV and Polish princess Queen Marie Leszczynska. The descendant of Saint Louis, she became the spiritual daughter of Saint Teresa of Avila. much more
A young Madame Louise de France
Former Prime Minister Miloš Zeman called them “one of the parties that could fit in an elevator.” Social Democrat Party Chairman Jiří Paroubek once referred to them as “not even small fish, but plankton.”
The members of Koruna Česká, a national party that wants to transform the government into a constitutional monarchy, are used to condescendence. But, with between 400 and 500 members and government representation in four municipalities, Koruna Česká is not just some farcical movement. “We’re not satirists, and we’re not some virtual party,” says party Chairman Václav Srb. “We’re simply the political embodiment of a movement to reunify the historic territories of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia under the Czech crown.”
Today, the crown jewels of the old Czech kingdom are locked away by seven keys, asleep in a secured chamber within the St. Vitus Cathedral. But if Srb and his fellow party members have their way, the storied St. Václav crown — the very same headpiece conceived by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV in the 14th century — would once again adorn the head of a Czech monarch.
Koruna Česká was founded in 1990 as the reincarnation of České děti, a monarchist movement that sprang up in the revolutionary atmosphere of 1988. That year, the dissident members of České děti published a manifesto advocating the renewal of the Czech kingdom, which was reprinted by communist newspaper Rudé právo in an effort to discredit the group. “By showing the public that the dissidents had become monarchists, the comrades wanted to prove that [the dissidents] had gone completely insane,” Srb says. “However, it had the opposite effect.”
By publishing key passages of the manifesto, Rudé právo brought the movement to the attention of dozens of like-minded individuals who had previously thought they were alone in their views. In 1991, over 400 people filled the Realistické (now Švandovo) theatre in Smíchov for Koruna Česká’s first official assembly. “Until then, each of us thought that we were isolated in our persuasion,” Srb says. “Every monarchist was therefore pleasantly surprised to learn that there were more of us who had found the same solution.”
Srb, a historian, says he came to the conclusion while studying central European wars and political conflicts of the 20th century. “Today, not just the monarchists, but any historian will admit that the fragmentation of the central Danube territory was nonsensical,” Srb says. “By breaking up this territory, which for centuries served as a buffer for outside invasion, it was only a matter of time before these little countries fell prey to Germany or Russia.”
In the case of the Czech lands, the Treaty of Versailles only ensured its security for the next 20 years, when Hitler “stopped liking it,” Srb says. While he admits that the Austro-Hungarian Empire could not have survived without major reforms that would have increased the autonomy of individual regions, “those reforms were already on the program — their implementation was only interrupted with the onset of World War I,” Srb says.
Return of the king
Instead of its current republican form, which he calls “unsettled” and “artificial,” Srb and his fellow monarchists would strengthen the political integrity of the state by restoring the traditions of the Czech kingdom. To do this, it would be essential to replace the current presidential institution with a royal one. Aside from Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, the venerated founding father of the Czechoslovak republic, “an overwhelming majority of our presidents have been either outwardly criminal or pitiful,” Srb says, whereas locals continue to refer to Charles IV as the “most revered Czech persona.”
Unlike the president, who is elected to his post, the king would be groomed for his reign since childhood, which would raise respect for his position and elevate him above politics, Srb says.
Apart from gaining national support for their reforms, the monarchists face the obvious challenge of finding a luminary who would be able and willing to take the crown.
According to Srb, the most obvious choice would be former European Parliament representative Otto von Habsburg. As the eldest son of the last Austro-Hungarian emperor Charles, the 95-year-old crown prince of Austria is the heir to the Czech throne. more
But, because the Habsburg dynasty was for decades demonized by local republicans, “it’s understandable that this dynasty isn’t the right one at the moment,” Srb says.
An alternate solution is to turn to foreign ruling dynasties. “I say, if not the Habsburgs, then anyone —let’s not be Eurocentric,” says Srb, whose own provocative suggestion is Norodom Sihamini, the current king of Cambodia. “His father stowed him away here during Cambodia’s period of upheaval … he is the only currently ruling monarch in the world who is fluent in Czech.”
Regardless of the feasibility of its agenda, Koruna česká’s presence on the political scene points to a deep disillusionment with the nation’s current identity. “Through our ideals, we want to rehabilitate a non-pathetic, cultured patriotism and the values that coincide with it,” the party’s manifesto says.
“Although our republic is a woeful 90 years old, it’s a negligible episode in our nation’s thousand years of statehood,” Srb adds. “The old traditions still dwell in each of us, but, in most cases, they’re asleep.”
With roots dating back to the Great Moravian Empire, the Czech kingdom is over a thousand years old. Here are four of its most noteworthy rulers.
Hailed as the patron saint of the Czech lands, the "good king Václav (Wenceslaus)" is credited with bringing the kingdom greater autonomy and strengthening Christianity. According to legend, he was murdered in a power struggle by his brother, Boleslav.
Charles IV (1316–1378)
A member of the Luxembourg dynasty, this Holy Roman Emperor was responsible for bringing the Czech kingdom to its height of glory. His reign saw the establishment of Charles University and New Town, as well as signature structures like Karlštejn castle and Charles Bridge.
Franz Joseph I (1830–1916)
As the world's longest-reigning emperor, this Habsburg saw the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His wife, Elisabeth of Bavaria, or "Sissi," is revered by Czechs and Austrians for her beauty and charisma.
As he was the great-nephew of the then ruling Emperor, Franz Joseph, it was not envisioned at his birth that it would one day fall to him to rule.As a Christian Emperor, Karl expressed forgiveness of all his enemies, especially the Masons among them. Suddenly, he declared in an emphatic voice, “I have to suffer so much in order that my people may be united again.” Then, kissing a crucifix, he began to pray in what sounded like a dialogue.
“Thy holy will be done. Jesus, Jesus, come! Yes, yes, my Jesus, as thou willest it.”
Markéta Hulpachová, The Prague Post, December 19th, 2007
That a restoration of the monarchy is even being discussed, is to me very hopeful.
Elena-Maria Vidal has another bit of information about the Queen-Martyr...
At the Tuilleries
Among the many out-of-print books that are now online is Imbert de Saint-Amand's Marie-Antoinette at the Tuileries (1893). In spite of the panegyrics, there are many quotes from original letters as well as day-by-day accounts of the life of the royal family during their life under virtual house arrest from October of 1789 until the end of 1791. The following passages describe the tightening of security around the family after their escape attempt in June 1791. The queen, especially, was closely guarded (as anyone can see, it would have been impossible for her to have entertained Count Fersen, as some authors claim.) more
Thanks and a tip of the Chapeau to Elena-Maria
THE CASTLE OF Krummau in Bohemia stands majestically on its crag in a bend of the Moldau river, presiding confidently over the town below. Český Krumlov, as the town is known in the currently-reigning Czech language, began in the thirteenth century under the Rosenberg family and was purchased by the Emperor Rudolf II in 1602. Yet it was under the princely house of Schwarzenberg (proprietors of Krumau from 1719 to 1945) that the castle flourished. The name Český Krumlov means Bohemian Krummau, to differentiate it from a Moravian town of the same name. (It is also often rendered as Krumau or Krumau-an-der-Moldau). more
Thanks and a salute to
From Andrew Cusack's blog of Dec 17, 2007,
God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen
God rest ye merry, gentlemen
Let nothing you dismay
Remember, Christ, our Saviour
Was born on Christmas day
To save us all from Satan's power
When we were gone astray
O tidings of comfort and joy,
Comfort and joy
O tidings of comfort and joy
In Bethlehem, in Israel,
This blessed Babe was born
And laid within a manger
Upon this blessed morn
The which His Mother Mary
Did nothing take in scorn
O tidings of comfort and joy,
Comfort and joy
O tidings of comfort and joy
From God our Heavenly Father
A blessed Angel came;
And unto certain Shepherds
Brought tidings of the same:
How that in Bethlehem was born
The Son of God by Name.
O tidings of comfort and joy,
Comfort and joy
O tidings of comfort and joy
"Fear not then," said the Angel,
"Let nothing you affright,
This day is born a Saviour
Of a pure Virgin bright,
To free all those who trust in Him
From Satan's power and might."
O tidings of comfort and joy,
Comfort and joy
O tidings of comfort and joy
The shepherds at those tidings
Rejoiced much in mind,
And left their flocks a-feeding
In tempest, storm and wind:
And went to Bethlehem straightway
The Son of God to find.
O tidings of comfort and joy,
Comfort and joy
O tidings of comfort and joy
And when they came to Bethlehem
Where our dear Saviour lay,
They found Him in a manger,
Where oxen feed on hay;
His Mother Mary kneeling down,
Unto the Lord did pray.
O tidings of comfort and joy,
Comfort and joy
O tidings of comfort and joy
Now to the Lord sing praises,
All you within this place,
And with true love and brotherhood
Each other now embrace;
This holy tide of Christmas
All other doth deface.
O tidings of comfort and joy,
Comfort and joy
O tidings of comfort and joy
(While in the Marine Corps, in the field, we were told not to overly bathe, use aftershave or strong deoderant as it alerted the enemy.)
From Yesterday Revisited Here...
Hygiene (or lack thereof)
There are certain delicate aspects of the past that historical fiction authors usually soft-pedal. Let's face it, the fact that our heroes of the past very seldom brushed their teeth or sponged off their armpits is pretty unappealing by today's standards. More
Charlotte was born July 27, 1768 in Les Champeaux near Vitmoutiers, in the province of Normandie in France. A portrait (below) of her two days before she was guillotined shows us a strong Norman face, with a set jaw, sense of purpose and a visage of that pride of race known to all the French but especially so prevalent in Normans. She was through her mothers line a descendant of the great French Dramatists, the "Father of French Tragedy" Pierre Corneille, this being perhaps a self fulfilling prophecy. She was born into an aristocratic albeit poor family. Charlotte was educated in a convent in Caen, a usual way to obtain an education in those days and when money was scarce. She was a Royalist but possibly due in part to her state she sympathised with the ideals of the enlightenment. These sympathies found her with the moderate faction the Girondists, who though not royalists were in fact much more moderate than the Jacobins.
In September 1792 savage "September Massacres" occured in which prisoners believed to be counter revolutionary were murdered. Three Bishops and any non-juring Priests found were horribly killed and mutilated. The Princesse Laballe, friend and confidant of Marie-Antoinette was beheaded, her lifeless body was sexually abused and her head was placed upon a pike and brought to the window of the temple to "show the Queen". The massacre was the work of the san-cullotes, the trouserless ones, who felt that Paris and the de-facto government would be in danger should they leave to fight the Duke of Bruswicks forces assembled for an attack to restore the throne. More unspeakable atrocities took place, but it seems today unbelievable that it could have happened. The "September Massacres angered Charlotte Corday. She blamed the Jacobins and especially Jean Paul Marat for the atrocities.
Just as her 25th birthday in July 1793 approached, Charlotte left Caen and mounting a coach left for Paris. In her possession was a copy of Plutarch's Parallel Lives, a book of biographies of Greek and Roman leaders arranged in pairs illustrating the failings and successes of each.
Charlottes plan and motives for the killing of Marat were based probably in part on the Catholic teaching of tyrannicide. Though Catholic doctrine condemns tyrannicide as opposed to the natural law, formerly great theologians of the Church like St. Thomas, Suarez , and Bañez, O.P. permitted rebellion against oppressive rulers when the tyranny had become extreme and when no other means of safety were available. In other words Charlotte believed that she would be stopping the murder of thousands by executing Marat, (just as Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg believed the death of Hitler would prevent more destruction in Germany). I believe tyrannicide was at least in her mind, because at her trial, Corday testified that she had carried out the assassination alone, saying " I killed one man to save 100,000." While many believe this to be in reference to Robespierre's statement at the death of Louis XVI, it shows that the teaching was at least in her mind when it is coupled with her possession of Plutarch.
Arriving in Paris she took a room at the Hôtel de Providence. Some time later she purchased a large kitchen knife at the Palais Royale. She sat down and wrote her "Adresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix" ("Speech to the French who are Friends of Law and Peace") a manifesto about her purpose in committing an act of assassination of Marat.
Some time before noon on the 13th of July, she went to the residence of Marat, and attempted to see him. At first she was denied admittance either by a housekeeper or Mme Marat. Later that day she slipped in as a delegation was entering the residence. She found Marat, who suffered from a skin disorder, probably as a result of celiac disease writing in his bath. On the wall Marat had written La Mort! (Death). Charlotte approached him and told him she had news from Normandy of the factionary Girondins who had escaped to Caen. He asked the for the names of the deputies and when he was told he said "Good, they shall be guillotined." At these words she plunged her knife deep into Marat's chest. His last words were "À moi, ma chère amie!" To me (help) my dear friend..
Charlotte was captured by the friends of Marat before she could escape. She was tried by the tribunal, who attempted a cover up prior to the trial. Although her attorney skillfully defended her she was condemned. Corday testified that she had carried out the assassination by herself, saying "I killed one man to save 100,000."
The outcome of the trial was never really in question, and she was condemned to the guillotine. Charlotte was executed on 17 July 1793. Legend has it that after she was guillotined the executioner took her by the hair and slapped her across the face. Her face scowled at the executioner in "unequivocal indignation"! The slap was considered an unacceptable breach of etiquette and the executioner was locked away for 3 months.
The immediate result of the assassination was a new wave of terror. Marat became a martyr, and busts of Marat replaced crucifixes and religious statues that were no longer welcome under the new regime. The anti-female stance of many revolutionary leaders was increased by Corday's actions. This in turn probably led to revenge, focused on the person of Marie-Antoinette.
Marat was treated like the martyred hero, and saviour. A great ceremony took place led by Jaques Louis David, the painter whose "Death of Marat" is shown above. The entire National Convention attended Marat's funeral and he was buried in the Couvent des Cordeliers. His remains were transferred to the Panthéon on November 25, 1793. A quasi-saint to the revolution, busts of him were placed in de-Chrisianized churches in the place of crucifixes. By early 1795, however, Marat's memory had become tarnished. In February, his coffin was removed from the Panthéon and the various busts and sculptures were destroyed. His final resting place is the cemetery of the Church Saint-Étienne-du-Mont.
I appologize for being morbid today.
It is sometimes easy to think of battle as a one day affair. When its over the wounded and dead clean themselves off, the mess and carnage are cleared away and the land is neat and it looks as if
nothing happened. The opponents shake hands in a gentlemanly manner and it is done until the next time. Not so. The wounds take time to heal, the dead must be buried and the land is affected for centuries. Even after healing the scars remain...
VETERANS OF FREDERICKSBURG apoem by Eleanor Rogers Cox,
on the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Fredricksburg Virgina
To the surviving members of Meagher's* Irish Brigade,
on the fiftieth anniversary of the Battle of Fredericksburg
December 13, 1862 - December 13, 1912
WHO ARE THESE WHO HITHER MARCHING
DOWN THE VALE OF MISTY YEARS,
FROM THE HEIGHTS WHERE NOW THE
CANNON'S LIPS ARE DUMB,
FROM THE FIELD WHERE MEAGHER LED THEM,
FROM THE FIELD WHERE VALOR SPED THEM,
ALL IN BROKEN BUT UNDAUNTED COLUMN COME.
OLD MEN, BRAVE MEN, MEN OF IRISH BIRTH!
MEN WHO ON THE FOREHEAD
OF THEIR DEAR NEW LAND AFAR,
SET THE NAME OF IRELAND,
OF THEIR KNIGHTLY SIRELAND
THERE TO SHINE FOREVER LIKE A STAR!
FREDERICKSBURG! THE NAME IS GRAVEN
ON THE MEMORIES OF MEN,
IN IMMORTAL SCRIPT OF THUNDER AND OF FLAME,
AND YOUR COMRADES THERE WHO PERISHED,
LO! OF GOD AND FREEDOM CHERISHED,
GLEEMS THEIR DEED UPON
THE FAIREST HEIGHT OF FAME!
FONTENOY AND FREDERICKSBURG!
INSCRIBE THEM SIDE BY SIDE;
SARSFIELD, DILLON, MEAGHER,
ALL MEN OF THE BRIGADE-
WHO FOR EVERY FRIENDSHIP GIVEN
TO THEIR LAND BENEATH HIGH HEAVEN
IN THE COINAGE OF THEIR HEART'S
FAIR VALOR PAID.
THROUGH YOUR VEINS WHAT HERO-FIRE
LEAPED UPON THAT DAY!
WHAT IMMORTAL HERITAGE OF FEAR-DEFYING MIRTH
AS WITH CHEER OUTRINGING,
YOUR BOUYANT RANKS WENT SPRINGING
FORWARD TO THE BREASTWORKS
O'ER CORPSE BESTREWN EARTH!
"FORWARD TO THE BREASTWORKS!"
FROM OUT THE SMOKE AND FLAME
BELCHED FORTH FROM MARYE'S HEIGHTS,
WE PLUCK THE DEATHLESS WORD!
AND THE MOTTO OF YOUR GIVING
SHALL BE (THE) MOTTO OF OUR LIVING
WHERESOEVER SOUND OF IRISH SPEECH IS HEARD!
BRAVE MEN, TRUE MEN, MEN OF THE BRIGADE!
MEN WHO FOLLOWED MEAGHER OF THE SWORD!
LOOK, HOW GLOWS THE GOD LIT EMBER
OF THAT DAY IN FAR DECEMBER,
HOW ITS MEMORY IN OUR INMOST SOUL IS STORED!
Note: Meagher is pronounced Mar
"One of the most beautiful series of apparitions of the Queen of Heaven occurred on the American continent on a December day of 1531, only ten years after the Spanish conquest. A fervent Christian Indian in his fifties, Juan Diego, a widower, was on his way to Mass in Mexico City from his home eight miles distant, a practice he and his wife had followed since their conversion, in honor of Our Lady on Her day, Saturday. He had to pass near the hill of Tepeyac, and was struck there by the joyous song of birds, rising up in the most melodious of concerts; he stopped to listen. Looking up to the hilltop, he perceived a brilliant cloud, surrounded by a light brighter than a fiery sun, and a gentle voice called him by name, saying, “Juan, come.” His first fear was transformed into a sweet happiness by this voice, and he mounted the slope. There he beheld the One he had intended to honor by hearing Her Mass. She was surrounded by a radiance so brilliant it sent out rays that seemed to transform the very rocks into scintillating jewels."
more... and here as well..., and some art....
"...The closest confidante of Queen Marie-Antoinette was Madame de Polignac. Gabrielle de Polastron, Duchesse de Polignac, also referred to as "Yolande," is usually portrayed in books and films as Marie-Antoinette's "bad girl" friend, responsible for leading the young queen of France into a wild, decadent lifestyle. Often depicted as a greedy, spendthrift slut, Gabrielle preferred simplicity, was a devoted mother and loyal friend of both Louis and Antoinette. Part of the rehabilitation of Marie-Antoinette's reputation is a careful look at her relationship with Gabrielle..."
Other articles on Calumny and Marie-Antoinette:
Marie-Antoinette: A reputation in shreds
"Let Them Eat Cake"
Joseph Bara repudely a member of the republican French Army and hailed as a hero by the revolution was killed this date in 1793 in action against the Royal and Catholic Army in the Vendee. Supposedly he was trapped by Royalist Forces who demanded his surrender by yelling "Vive le Roi “, he instead chose to die and in his last breath yell "Vive la République". He was 13 years old. He was alleged to have been in the 8eme Regt d'Hussards(Light Cavalry) Whose uniform would have looked simalar to this.
Touted by Robespierre in the convention paper, as a 13 year old hero, his death was used as propaganda, and his remains were placed in the Panthéon.
This propaganda by Robespierre is undoubtedly false, and used to bolster flagging morale in the convention when the members were getting nervous about the insurrection in the Vendée. What is more likely it was a youth who was killed on the Royalist side who refused to cry "Vive la République" and was killed for voicing "Vive le Roi “, or “Dieu Sauve le Roi”, and that the story was seized upon by Robespierre to further the republican cause. The convention and the person of Robespierre frequently lied when it would suit the ”cause”. The death of a child
would not have mattered a wit to Robespierre, as the suffering of the children of the Vendee, or of the Lost King Louis XVII.
His image was painted by Jacques-Louis David. It shows an effeminate youth in the pangs of death.
A link to a more republican view is found here. It is in French and English.
Vive le Roi!
Sieur de Brantigny
The true story of Santa Claus begins with Nicholas, who was born during the third century in the village of Patara. At the time the area was Greek and is now on the southern coast of Turkey. His wealthy parents, who raised him to be a devout Christian, died in an epidemic while Nicholas was still young. Obeying Jesus' words to "sell what you own and give the money to the poor," Nicholas used his whole inheritance to assist the needy, the sick, and the suffering. He dedicated his life to serving God and was made Bishop of Myra while still a young man. Bishop Nicholas became known throughout the land for his generosity to the those in need, his love for children, and his concern for sailors and ships.
Under the Roman Emperor Diocletian, who ruthlessly persecuted Christians, Bishop Nicholas suffered for his faith, was exiled and imprisoned. The prisons were so full of bishops, priests, and deacons, there was no room for the real criminals—murderers, thieves and robbers. After his release, Nicholas attended the Council of Nicaea in AD 325. He died December 6, AD 343 in Myra and was buried in his cathedral church, where a unique relic, called manna, formed in his grave. This liquid substance, said to have healing powers, fostered the growth of devotion to Nicholas. The anniversary of his death became a day of celebration, St. Nicholas Day.
Through the centuries many stories and legends have been told of St. Nicholas' life and deeds. These accounts help us understand his extraordinary character and why he is so beloved and revered as protector and helper of those in need. more
My name is printed below my Mission Statement. You are given leave to address me by my Christian name.
History is a lovely thing, especially after the book that you read or the film that you watch has a thread of the actual lives concerned. Today I present the real D'Artagnan, somewhat different than the one portrayed in the movies yet similar as well.
D'Artagnan was born in Lupiac. His father was the son of a newly ennobled merchant, Arnaud de Batz, who purchased the castle of Castelmore. Charles de Batz went to Paris in the 1630s, using the name of his mother, daughter of an illustrious family, Françoise de Montesquiou d'Artagnan. D'Artagnan found a way to enter into the Musketeers in 1632, perhaps thanks to the influence of his family's friend, Monsieur de Tréville (Jean-Armand du Peyrer, Count of Troisvilles). While in the Musketeers, d'Artagnan sought the protection of the influential Cardinal Mazarin, France's principal minister since 1643. In 1646, the Musketeers company was dissolved, but d'Artagnan continued to serve his protector Mazarin.
D'Artagnan had a career in espionage for Cardinal Mazarin, in the years after the first Fronde. Due to d'Artagnan's faithful service during this period, Louis XIV entrusted him with many secret and delicate situations that required complete discretion. He followed Mazarin during his exile in 1651 in the face of the hostility of the aristocracy. In 1652 d'Artagnan was promoted to lieutenant in the Gardes Françaises, then to captain in 1655. In 1658, he became a second lieutenant in the newly reformed Musketeers. This was a promotion, as the Musketeers were far more prestigious than the Gardes-Françaises.
D'Artagnan was famous for his connection with the arrest of Nicolas Fouquet. Fouquet was Louis XIV's finance commissioner and aspired to take the place of Mazarin as the King's advisor. Fouquet was also a lover of grand architecture and employed the greatest architects and artisans in the building of his Chateau Vaux-le-Vicomte. He celebrated the completion with a most extravagant feast, in which every guest was given a horse. The king however felt upstaged by the grandeur of the home and event and, suspecting that such magnificence could only be explained through Fouquet pilfering the royal treasury, immediately had d'Artagnan arrest Fouquet. D'Artagnan guarded him for four years until Fouquet was sentenced to life imprisonment.
In 1667, d'Artagnan was promoted to captain-lieutenant of the Musketeers, effectively the commander as the nominal captain was the King. As befitting his rank and position, he could be identified by his striking burgundy, white and black livery - the colours of the commanding officer of the Musketeers. Another of d'Artagnan's assignments was the governorship of Lille, which was won in battle by France in 1667. D'Artagnan was an unpopular governor, and longed to return to battle. He found his chance when Louis XIV went to war with the Dutch Republic in the Franco-Dutch War. After being recalled to service, d'Artagnan was subsequently killed in battle on June 25, 1673 when a musket ball tore into his throat at the Siege of Maastricht.
Now the reason this Novel and its successors is this is the period in French history when my family, in the person of one Etienne De Nevers, Sieur de Brantigny,(hence my Nom-de-Plume)left France for New France about 1645 and went to Ville Ste. Marie, now known as Montreal. I have always been fascinated by this period and what France looked like when my ancestor Etienne lived there.
In my humble opinion the 3 Musketeers film I like the best was made in 1973 starring Oliver Reed, Michael York and Raquel Welch. Two Sequels were made, and although there was some ribauldry done and A bit of irreverence to the Church I have enjoyed watching it over and over.
All for one! One for all.
Vive la Roi! Vive la Reine!
Marie-Antoinette, born in 1755, was the fifteenth child in a family of sixteen. In the picture above the future queen of France is the small girl with a doll. Although her parents were the Holy Roman Emperor and Empress, they were very informal as royals go. "The Imperial family," said Goethe, as quoted by Maxime de La Rocheterie, "is nothing more than a large German bourgeoisie." Rocheterie, in his classic biography of Marie-Antoinette, describes the household in which Marie-Antoinette was raised:
Etiquette was unknown. The emperor and empress liked to live in the midst of their subjects kind and friendly toward all but restraining familiarity by respect. Unfortunately they were so absorbed by the care of the policy and administration of their vast empire that they had little leisure to superintend the education of their numerous children. They confided them to tutors and governesses whom they chose with care and to whom it appears they gave their instructions without, however, seeing that they were carried out. (Rocheterie, p 2) more...
Thanks again to Tea at Trianon, from which I receieve my inspiration for many articles.
From Laudem Gloriae
On Trinity Sunday, June 6, 1830, Sister Labouré was given a special vision of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament, or more specifically of Christ as King. This time she is precise as to the moment of the vision. Our Lord appeared to her, robed as a king, with a cross at His breast, during the Gospel of the Mass. Suddenly, all His kingly ornaments fell from Him to the ground—even the cross, which tumbled beneath His feet. Immediately her thoughts and her heart fell, too, and were plunged into that chasm of gloom that she had known before, gloom that portended a change in government. This time, however, she understood clearly that the change in government involved the person of the King, and that, just as Christ was divested of His royal trappings before her, so would Charles X be divested of his throne. more
Vive le Roi,
From Tea at Trianon we have this post about the freemasons and the destruction of the social order in France during the revolution...
"...The picture above is of a masonic pamphlet celebrating the death of Louis XVI. Yes, I realize that it is stylish in very sophisticated circles to make fun of all conspiracy theories. Of course, there has been a tendency of some authors in the past to make everything that happened in the Revolution a result of masonic conspiracies..." more
Thanks and tip of the hat to Elena-Maria Vidal
December 8, is the Feast of the Immaculate Conception of Mary. A dogma of the Catholic Faith. Mary the Mother of God, is conceived without original sin.
Many members of non-Catholic Ecclesiastic Communities (Evangelicals Christians) have asked me to explain to them how this is possible for Mary to have been born with out original sin. They say to me that Original sin is passed from Adam and Eve through our parents to us. How therefore can Mary's mother have the sin and not yet pass it from herself to her daughter? Then the argument continues thus, "If Jesus was born from Mary and had not yet died and rose from the dead, (by which we are all redeemed), how is it then that Mary was redeemed at her conception"?
So we see in these two sentences these facts: 1. There is original sin. 2. Jesus was conceived (through the Holy Spirit) in Mary's womb. 3. Jesus died and rose again. They believe these things because they have the faith to believe them. They realize that in God all things are possible, yet they can not get their mind around a very special additional miracle of God. ...And this is my main problem with most non-Catholics (and some supposed Catholics) they unconsciously place limits on God. They decide what God will do and what God will not do. (see the next post)
This is an easy analogy I use to teach this Dogma to my students...
Suppose you are walking down a dark path in the woods. You have travelled this path many times before. This time however some one has dug a hole in the path which you cannot see. You plunge into the hole incapable of rescuing yourself. Suddenly a arm and hand appears and pulls you out. You have been redeemed after falling into the hole.
Consider Mary, she walks down the same path, and just as she is to fall into the hole she is pulled back. She has been redeemed "before" falling into the hole.
God is the Alpha and Omega, always was and always will be. He is all knowing, all powerful and everywhere at once. Everywhere means every time as well, for God everytime is NOW. He sees things all in the same NOW. And all at once...
O God, Who by the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, did prepare a worthy habitation for Thy Son: we beseech Thee, that as in view of the death of that Son, Thou didst preserve her from all stain of sin, so Thou wouldst enable us, being made pure by her intercession, to come unto Thee. Through the same Christ Our Lord. AMEN.
See The Miraculous Medal at Tea at Trianon.
God’s plan of the created world may be described by a series of triangles, each one subordinate to the one above but sharing in similarities, that of having a base, and an apex..
The first and largest triangle is that of all Creation. At the apex is God, creator of the universe, and the base is his creation which (we believe) God created and all in it. While many would not have a problem with this description there are those who are atheistic, who do not (and obstinately will not) believe this. This teaching has been central to Christians, Jews and Muslims. This teaching also been challenged from time to time by Satan, from the very beginning. I will expound on this and its effects later.
The next triangle is that of the Church, with the Pope at its apex and the
Church as its base. We see the apexes of these two triangles are
directly below one another, and a vertical line may be drawn from God
to the Pope which indicates Papal authority. Again while the truly
faithful have no problem with this, the dissenters within and from
without the Church including other Christian ecclesiastical communities
argue that the Pope is merely a figurehead and that he is just the
Bishop of Rome. They may even argue that he is the successor of Peter
but is no more of an authority than any other Bishop. The attack on
Papal authority began in earnest in 1154 with the Great Schism, through
the Protestant Reformation (by Luther, Calvin, Henry VIII, etc.) the
American and most notably the French Revolution (i.e. Civil
Constitution of the Clergy, destruction of religious orders, killing of
Priests and religious, and attacks on the faithful of the Vendee ),
Communist revolutions, (where the secular government is officially
atheistic) to the “Me Generation”, (free love and modernism), and the
pressing for Priestesses by women, media and liberals.
The third triangle is that of the Crown. The apex is the King (or Queen,
depending on the nation) with its base the national family. Again, a
vertical line may be drawn from God through the Pope (and Church) to
the triangle of the Crown. This line is indicative of the relationship
between God and the Crowned head of a nation. It insinuates that this
relationship is ordained by God for the governance of the subjects and
that the Crown is responsible for those subjects to God.
The fourth and last triangle is the family triangle. The apex is the
father. The base is the family and the children in that family. Again
the line is drawn from God to the father of the family as the head of
the household. I realize that in today’s society where the father is
absent either by divorce, abandonment, dereliction, or unnatural
circumstances he may not be viewed as the head of the family, this does
not make him less so; on the contrary it increases his culpability to
Each of these relationships is a microcosm of the one above it. Therefore,
logically it must be assumed that this is the model for mankind as
ordained by God. Each has been in its turn been attacked by satan and each has suffered from these attacks to a greater or lesser degree. These attacks continue.
Let us begin with the first, the attack on God’s Creation. It began as Holy Scripture relates, in the Garden of Eden. When satan persuaded Eve to eat the “…fruit of the tree which is in the midst of paradise...” “...your eyes shall be opened: and you shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil.”(1)In other words, Satan persuaded Adam and Eve that they really had no need of the God who had created them. The triangle was turned upside down for them (and us until Baptism) where their god is whatever and whomever they choose. This first attempt to change the direction of the triangle from pointing up to pointing down is a recurring feature of the attacks by satan on creation and on social order. It was this attack which set the tone for all future attacks, that of supplanting God with the creature and of assuming the authority of God for oneself.
Today we are beset with those who would challenge Gods authority by rationalism, by claiming all things are equal, or by replacing God with a society which lionizes the person, popularity, and possessions over God. This is a society where God is minimilized in order to elevate the status of mankind to exalted positions. Once again we see the triangle inverted. Too often these persons are exalted because they espouse popular (but false) teachings and ideas, lead a perverse lifestyle, challenge authority, or are in the media spotlight. They are elevated because they speak with an authority which they do not possess. To pervert mankind and to create his parody satan must destroy the Church.To do this he must convince the faithful that the Pope is not God’s anointed on earth, chosen to tend the sheep of the Church militant. As mentioned before, his attacks have come in the form of the Great heresies (2), are repackaged resold as Eastern mysticism, Mormonism, Freemasonry, Scientology, Wicca, Satanism, etc. Today the attacks arrive in the form of unnecessary liturgical changes, the desire by the laity to be in control of the church and sex offending priests and religious. It comes in the form of the protestantization of churches, the design of new churches which deemphasize the Blessed Sacrament by hiding the tabernacle away from the faithful. In each case they move to remove the Divine and replace it with the mundane.
In a like manner as the church the various Crowns have been attacked. Democracy has been taught to us as being the end all in as a form of government. It is rarely if ever mentioned that there can be no true democracies above a very local level. For example the current president tells us in every speech that America must move ahead as the beacon of democracy(3).In this he carries the message started by Woodrow Wilson to make the “World safe for Democracy” (4). Wilson overlooked the fact that Belgium, England and Japan were (and are) monarchies, and that the United States is formally styled a Republic*.
The most graphic example and overt attack by satan against monarchy was the attack against the monarchy and first daughter of the church, France. Before I begin I will relate some scripture passages which I believe demonstrate that authority comes from God to the ruler to rule over his (or her) subjects. “ Pilate therefore said to him, "You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have power to release you, and power to crucify you?" Jesus answered him "You would have no power over me unless it had been given you from above; therefore he who delivered me to you has the greater sin." (John 19 10-11) (4)Jesus is "the prince of the kings of the earth." (Apoc.1:5). (5) "For the nation and the kingdom that will not serve thee, shall perish" (Is.60:12)(6) "Let every soul be subject to higher powers: for there is no power but from God: and those that are, are ordained of God. Therefore he that resists the power,resists the ordinance of God. And they that resist, purchase to themselves damnation. For princes are not a terror to the good work, but to the evil." (Romans 13:1-3) (7) "Give ear, you that rule the people…For power is given you by the Lord, and strength by the most High, who will examine your works, and search out your thoughts" (Wisdom 6: 3-4)(8) "By me kings reign, and lawgivers decree just things, By me princes rule, and the mighty decree justice." (Proverbs 8:15-16)(9) As we see not only does the authority to rule come from God but those rulers are required to be examined by that same God. This is in direct conflict with the writings of Rousseau who stated “The people are sovereign and authority lies in them.” So we have a problem, a trauma really, who is sovereign, man or God? Again Rousseau writes¸ “Law is the expression of the General Will of the people and this is indicated by numbers.”(votes?) Rousseauist democracy makes a God of the People, makes might prevail over right, makes the votes of a hundred fools or villains prevail over those of fifty saints or men of genius. (10) Yet this is the same ideology which propels forward the engines of democracy. To Rousseau and others of the French revolution, all things being equal, which ever plan receives the most votes, no matter how despicable it may be it must be adopted because it is a consensus. This democratic philosophy presupposes that the people can never make a mistake or that if it does it can be rectified either by more votes or by force. Rousseauist dogma, it must be called that for it is a religion, is defended by those who are indoctrinated from their youth to believe these ideas. In France this lead to the decapitation of the King and Queen, their closest relatives, and death by abuse and starvation of the Dauphin. Why? Because this satanically imposed democracy could not afford to lose control of Power. A most striking personage is Robespierre who literally had the power of life and death over the people of France. “…your eyes shall be opened: and you shall be as Gods”. It was by votes that the King, and Queen were executed on trumped up charges. It was by votes that the Dauphin was allowed to enter into such degradation. It was by vote that Priests, Nuns, and religious were executed. It was by vote that thevendee was invaded and ravaged. No one person could be charged with culpability with these atrocities. The triangle had been inverted. One last thing is important here. The King was and should be regarded as the father of his people. In martyring him the ground work was laid for the destruction of the family.
Before there was a Pope, before there was a King there was a family. Adam and Eve created the first family. In order to make a family one must produce children. Not to dwell on the mechanics of the thing suffice it to say that children were produced by one man and one woman. The church in it’s infinite wisdom says that any other way of conception is unnatural. Unfortunately now it is possible for a woman to conceive through artificial means, by fertilizing the woman’s egg with male sperm artificially in a test tube. Women no longer are satisfied to be married to a man, and have children. It inflicts too much of a strain on her private life. Contraception has lead to abortion of unwanted pregnancies. Women who cohabitate with other women want children, and have lobbied to be allowed to be “married” through legal means. Men too while not able to carry a baby, lobby to adopt children to start families. Their arguments have become so common that the population has tuned them out and worse, they have been so rationalized as to be seen as a lifestyle that is as equal to a normal and natural lifestyle. Abortion too has reared its ugly head as Prophesied by Pope Paul VI. Unwanted pregnancies are just done away with like a murphy in golf.
We have an additional attack which presents us with the theory that “It
Takes a Village to Raise a Child” (11) This theory presents us with government controlling the family, but it does not stop there, All over the nation schools have declared that the parent does not have the right to be in charge of their child’s education, that they know best what a child needs to learn.(12) A certain candidate for president has presented us with “sex ed. for kindergarten.” (13) The family triangle has been inverted .
As each triangle has been inverted, the role of God in the life of man has deminished. No longer is the universe an orderly succession of the passing of authority from God to Pope and Church, God to King and Nation, or God to father and family. The path of this parody we are led to believe is the God to the members of the church who in turn grant the Pope authority to be in charge. We are instructed next, that it is the nation who forms governments and provides the authority to the Government to govern. (14) In other words authority comes from God to the people to provide authority to the ruler. (we shall see next how fallacious is this.) …And lastly we are now informed that a family is whatever and whomever decides to get together for what ever short or long of a time, regardless of sex, (not gender, which is a grammatical term) . We are told that all relationships are valid and equal. (“Judge not and be not judged” the only Sacred Scripture a liberal knows). Is is presumed that children have rights which may supplant that of the parent.(15) That children should not even be spanked for disobedience (16) Thus we have the breakdown of the family and through that breakdown the order of the universe, and that which was ordained by God. (17)These are some of my reasons for considering Democracy whether in government, Church, or family as being unsupportable.
(1) Genesis Chapter 3, 3-6 Douay-Rhiems Bible
(2) see, The Great Heresies, Catholic Answers, http://www.catholic.com/library/Great_Heresies.asp
The Circumcisers (1st Century), Gnosticism (1st and 2nd Centuries), Montanism (Late 2nd Century), Sabellianism (Early 3rd Century), Arianism (4th Century), Pelagianism (5th Century), Semi-Pelagianism (5th Century), Nestorianism (5th Century), Monophysitism (5th Century), Iconoclasm (7th and 8th Centuries), Catharism (11th Century), Protestantism (16th Century), Jansenism (17th Century). All which (except Protestantism which fractures itself in some form or the other each day)
(3) Yahoo News, Pat Buchanan opinion, Ideology was Bush’s undoing. http://news.yahoo.com/s/uc/20071127/cm_uc_crpbux/op_334488
(4) Douay-Rheims Bible
(10) Article, Forerunners of the French Revolution, posted on Le Fleur de Lys Too
(11) Text of Hillary Clinton Speech, Tuesday, Aug. 27, 1996 Associated Press ,
(12) The Education Establishment: The Teacher Unions,
(13) Barack Obama , …on sex education for kindergarteners. July 18, 2007 1:13 PM ABC News' Teddy Davis and Lindsey Ellerson Report: Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., told Planned Parenthood Tuesday that sex education for kindergarteners, as long as it is "age-appropriate," is "the right thing to do."
Declaration of Independence, 1776, …Governments are instituted among
Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,
--That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these
ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to
institute new Government…,
(15) Children’s Rights Movement, Wikipedia article.
(16) Mass. Considers Outlawing Spanking. CBS/AP, Nov. 28, 2007 Boston Mass
(17 Genesis Chapter 1, 1-31 Douay-Rhiems Bible
Note: More of a oligarchy than of a republic.
Clovis was the founder of the Merovingian dynasty of Frankish kings, Clovis defeated the last Roman ruler in Gaul and conquered various Germanic peoples in what is today France. His conversion to Catholicism (instead of the Arianism practiced by many Germanic peoples) would prove a landmark development for the Frankish nation.
Clovis was the son of the Frankish king Childeric and the Thuringian queen Basina; he succeeded his father as ruler of the Salian Franks in 481. At this time he also had control of other Frankish groups around present-day Belgium. By the time of his death he had consolidated all the Franks under his rule. He took control of the Roman province of Belgica Secunda in 486, the territories of the Alemanni in 496, the lands of the Burgundians in 500, and portions of Visigothic territory in 507.
Although his Catholic wife Clotilda ultimately convinced Clovis to convert to Catholicism, he was interested for a time in the Arian heresy and was sympathetic to it. He was baptised by Bishop St. Remi. Legend surrounds the ampullae used to hold the holy oils used, in addition to the oil of catechumens, in coronating Clovis as well as all later monarchs of France. The legend relates that the holy oil used in crowning the French monarchs was brought down from Heaven by a dove bearing an ampulla at the Baptism of Clovis, the warring Salic Frank, by Bishop Remigius ("Remi") at Reims on Christmas Day, A.D. 496. The conversion of Clovis to Christianity was the beginning of France's status as "elder daughter of the Church." The dove-borne vial, known in France as the "Sainte Ampoule," is reserved at the cathedral of Reims to this day.* His own conversion to Catholicism was personal and not a mass conversion of his peoples (many of whom were already Catholic), but the event had a profound influence on the nation and its relationship to the papacy. Clovis convoked a national Church council at Orléans, in which he participated significantly.
The Law of the Salian Franks (Pactus Legis Salicae) was a written code that most likely originated during the reign of Clovis. It combined customary law, Roman law and royal edicts, and it followed Christian ideals. Salic Law has influenced French and European law for centuries. It provided that the crown of France passes from male heir to male heir only.
The life and reign of Clovis was chronicled by Bishop Gregory of Tours more than half a century after the death of the king. Recent scholarship has revealed some errors in Gregory's account, but it still stands as an important history and biography of the great Frankish leader.
The name Clovis would later evolve into the name "Louis," the most popular name for French kings.
Kings of All the Franks
* Clovis I 481 - 511
* Chlothar I 558-561
* Dagobert I 629-639
* Childeric II 673-675
* Chlothar III 661-662
* Theuderic III 679-691
* Clovis IV 691-695
* Childebert III 695-711
* Dagobert III 711-715
* Chilperic II 715-720
* Theuderic IV 721-737
* Childeric III 743-751
Merovingian Saints, Queens, Abbesses, and Abbots
* Genovefa (Genevieve), virgin of Paris (died 502); (my daughters patron Saint)
* Clothilde, queen of the Franks (died 544/45);
* Monegund, widow and recluse of Tours (died 544);
* Radegund, Thuringian princess who founded a monastery at Poitiers (died 587);
* Rusticula, abbess of Arles (died 632);
* Cesaria II, abbess of St Jean of Arles (died ca 550);
* Glodesind, abbess in Metz (died ca 600);
* Burgundofara, abbess of Moutiers (died 645);
* Sadalberga, abbess of Laon (died 670);
* Rictrude, founding abbess of Marchiennes (died 688);
* Itta, founding abbess of Nivelles (died 652);
* Begga, abbess of Andenne (died 693);
* Gertrude of Nivelles, abbess of Nivelles (died 658) presented in The Life of St. Geretrude (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
* Aldegund, abbess of Mauberges (died ca 684);
* Waltrude, abbess of Mons (died ca 688);
* Balthild, queen of the Franks (died ca 680), presented in The Life of Lady Bathild, Queen of the Franks (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
* Eustadiola, widow of Bourges (died 684);
* Bertilla, abbess of Chelles (died ca. 700);
* Anstrude, abbess of Laon (died before 709);
* Austreberta, abbess of Pavilly (died 703);
* Audouin of Rouen, presented in The Life of Audoin, Bishop of Rouen (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
* Aunemond, presented in The Deeds of Aunemond (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
* Leodegar, bishop of Autun; presented in The Suffering of Ludegar (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
* Praejectus The Suffering of Praejectus (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996);
* Prætextatus, Bishop of Rouen and friend of Gregory;
* Gregory of Tours, Bishop of Tours and historian;
* Hubertus, Apostle of the Ardennes and first Bishop of Liège.
* Arnulf, bishop of Metz
*Note: Although the vial in Reims is not the original vial which was destroyed by the fanatics of the Revolution, a faithful Catholic sopped up some of the precious Chrism and preserved it for the future King Louis XVIII.